Pokeweed’s Humble Beginnings
Pokeweed is a plant that has played an important part in traditional herbal treatments. A plant that is considered to be a native of North and Central America, Pokeweed is one among the several species of Phytolaccas (Phyton in Greek standing for plant and lacca in Latin meaning lacquer). It is also found in East Asia and New Zealand.
Historically, the Pokeweed plant was used by Native Americans as a purgative as well as emetic. It was also used for its anti-rheumatic properties. The US Pharmacopoeia listed this plant as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory for close to a century beginning in 1820. The English name Pokeweed is derived from ‘Pocan’ (plants giving out red dye) and ‘Pak’ meaning blood. Both these words come from the Native American tongue.
The Pokeweed plant goes by a range of names that include offshoots like poke, pokebush, pokeberry and pokeroot. Names given to the popular dish made with the tender leaves are polk salad, polk salat and polk sallet.
Thanks to the crimson liquid it is filled with, the weed is also known as inkberry or ombú. This last name is specific to the pampas in South America. This particular version of the plant grows to the great heights of large trees. They provide a lot of shade as well. It is a symbolic plant in the cultures of Argentina and Uruguay.
Type of Herb
Pokeweed is a perennial herb. It grows to a maximum of 12 feet and has a thick purple shaded stem. Its leaves are pointed in shape and it blooms greenish-white flowers in clusters. These clusters of five or more flowers grow into berries, which are filled with a dark red juice. You will see this plant in full bloom between July and September.
Pokeweed is a sturdy plant and grows out in the open. Almost any kind of soil is suitable for its growth. All it needs is soil that is well-drained and regular exposure to sunlight. Pokeweed is not cultivated simply because it grows in ample abundance in the wild.
Propagation of Pokeweed
In terms of propagation, birds tend to eat the berries and then scatter the seeds around. That is why these plants are found in the strangest of places. In rare cases, these seeds are found mixed in with regular garden seeds and are looked upon as impurities. The Pokeweed has a substance called saponin. This substance is extremely poisonous. Birds however, seem to have developed an immunity to it.
Almost every part of the Pokeweed plant is poisonous and this includes the berries. The toxicity is the highest when the plant is young and all of it is concentrated in the roots. Pokeweed shoots need to be collected in the Spring in order to harvest the edible, non-toxic portions.
Similarly, the roots have to be picked during the fall. Once you have thoroughly dried them, they can be stored and used at a later stage. The berries too can be eaten only when they have just turned ripe. As for the berries, it is only the juice, which can be consumed, the seeds of the Pokeweed berry remain poisonous.
Using Pokeweed Leaves
Traditionally, Pokeweed leaves were taken out before they acquired their signature red color. These were then boiled in water, rinsed off thoroughly and then boiled once again. This was done at least three times with the water being thrown out after each session.
These boiled leaves were used in Pokeweed salad, though there were several who still did not agree with this application of Pokeweed. The leaves are also processed in a similar manner for use as tea. In addition, the young shoots are also eaten as a substitute for asparagus.
The red juice of the berries was extracted and then cooked. This juice was then used in the making of pies. It is also added to other juices that are used for making jelly. No part of the Pokeweed plant can be eaten underdone, uncooked or unprocessed.
A History of Uses
Pokeweed gained prominence as a traditional means of healing. Herbalists of yore used it in the preparation of a number of topical ointments as well as medication that could be ingested. As a topical treatment, it was used to ease acne. In terms of ingestion, it was used to soothe infections, treat tonsillitis and inflammation of the glands.
Breast related ailments such as swelling and rashes are treated with a grated Pokeweed root. It also helps soothe mastitis. Herbalists also used Pokeweed in the treatment of cancers of the uterus, throat as well as breasts. It has been used both topically as well as internally. A very famous result of this use has been the controversial Hoxsey Formula used in cancer care.
Mainstream medical practitioners have not accepted this form of treatment. Pokeweed has also been found to be effective in the treatment of scrofula, eczema, psoriasis and other skin related ailments.
Strength of Pokeweed
Even long ago, Pokeweed was considered to be extremely potent and herbalists often used watered down formulas in the form of tinctures and decoctions. These herbal formulas were used as blood cleansers and as a means to treat aching joints, which today we call rheumatism.
Pokeweed treatments were administered in an on-off style where a particular form of the medication was to be taken for a fixed period. A gap was prescribed in between and then the course resumed. Some of the dosages prescribed were one berry once a week or three berries three times a week.
Traditional Appalachian herbalists created a whiskey tincture out of the roots or a wine out of the berries in order to preserve these portions of the plant for internal use. Kerosene was used in the traditional methods of extractions. Experienced herbalists today prefer olive oil instead.
Pokeweed has an old reputation of being used to treat cancer. It even goes by the name cancer root. There are however, two variations in terms of application. Traditionally, one set of herbalists believed that the plant would be effective in its fresh form. Several others however propagated the use of the dried plant.
There is a great deal of investigation going on in terms of the use of Pokeweed for the treatment of AIDS and cancer. However, the studies are yet to be conclusive. Herbalists of today believe that the plant can help stimulate a weak thyroid gland. There have been references to Pokeweed being used for goiter as well as obesity. However, so far it is unclear whether the plant works on the gland directly or via the metabolism process thanks to its alternative properties.
Modern Day Usage
Today Pokeweed is used as an alternative therapy. It is believed to have alternative properties. This means that it gradually changes the way an illness runs its course. It works on the internal functioning of the body in terms of extracting nutrition and subsequent expulsion. This means that it acts as a cleanser for the digestive system as well as the blood. The liver is also believed to benefit from its cleansing properties. The direct result of blood cleansing is relief from a number of skin ailments. Pokeweed has proven useful in the treatment of scrofula, eczema as well as psoriasis.
Pokeweed is also used as an anti-viral. The Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) in several experiments conducted shows a tremendous capacity for fighting against several known viruses, of which HIV is also included. This last, however has been seen only in the in-vitro stage.
Pokeweed’s chemical makeup consists of triterpene saponins and tannins. It also has resins, and an active glycoprotein known as Pokeweed mitogens. These affect the division of cells. Therefore, they perform well against many illness causing organisms. Pokeweed’s anti-inflammatory properties make it a good remedy for throat-based illnesses like laryngitis, tonsillitis, as well as pharyngitis.
It is also used in the treatment of gland-based ailments and prevents or soothes ailments like lymphatic and glandular stasis. Examples of these would be goiter, mumps, and inflamed glands including the thyroid gland. Pokeweed is considered an immune enhancer, cathartic as well as emetic. Its purgative actions ensure that the bowels are emptied rapidly and if necessary, it induces vomiting.
Externally Pokeweed has been used to treat an eye infection known as conjunctivitis. A poultice of its roots is used in ointments to soothe ulcers, sores as well as infections and rashes. It has been used effectively on skin illnesses like ringworm, acne as well as the occasional scabies. As an insect repellent Pokeweed works well.
Pokeweed for Women & Arthritis
Pokeweed has also been used to alleviate several illnesses specific to women. Endometriosis can be eased with the prescribed use of Pokeweed. Premenstrual breast pain as well as aches can be dealt with as well. Oil infused with small amounts of Pokeweed root can be used as a stomach rub. Alternately low dose tinctures can be used. Interstitial cystitis is another inflammatory ailment that can be healed with this same tincture. Hemorrhoid pain too can be relieved with an extract from the roots.
From the olden days, Pokeweed has been used to relieve the pain and inflammation associated with rheumatic arthritis. The tincture is useful here. Alternately, you could have a berry or two that have been dried, swallow this whole. Very small quantities of the tincture can also alleviate headaches. Berry infused spirits too have been used under prescription for treatment of chronic rheumatism.
Choosing an Herbalist
No matter what the case, the use of Pokeweed must be undertaken with caution. Only trust highly qualified herbalists in the administering of Pokeweed remedies. They have to be administered in very small quantities and these have to be correctly measured.
Dr. Richard Shulze is a very famous modern day herbalist and healer. He promotes the use of Pokeweed and uses it even in his detox program. For a more glamorous reference, Poke Salad Annie was a song penned by Tony Joe White in 1969. The song was later on covered by the legend that was Elvis Presley.
Pokeweed Modern Day
Pokeweed can be used in a number of different ways. Modern science and technology has made it possible for Pokeroot to be processed and made available in the form of lotions, creams and poultices for topical use. You can buy it in the form of powders, Pokeweed root oil, root oil tincture as well as a variety of decoctions. E
ach one of these products is used in a different way to treat a range of illnesses. Pokeroot poultices are used for the treatment of swollen joints or even ulcers and hemorrhoids. In all its forms, Pokeweed needs to be diluted before use. Pokeweed oil can be diluted to make a tincture. This is then extensively used to treat lymphatic diseases.
Pokeweed root powder is for ingestion. This has to be taken in very small doses of not more than 50 to 250 gm. This is what you use to treat mastitis, rheumatism as well as other lymphatic disorders. Its extracts have been found to be very effective in treating skin based ailments like eczema, rashes and infection.
Pokeweed oil can be processed with olive oil and similar oils for topical use to heal swellings as well as growths on the body. Abnormal skin growths have been treated this way. Pokeweed root can also be made into a soothing salve by melting some beeswax into it. This can then be used on skin growths.
Pokeweed is not a medically recommended form of treatment. Rather it is an alternative method. Therefore, there is no hard and fast formula in terms of dosage. For adults, who are above the age of 18 years, a gram of dried Pokeweed root can be had as a purgative. If you are trying to boost your immune system or treat chronic rheumatism you can up the dosage to around 60 to 100 mg a day. However, this has to be done under strict supervision of an experienced herbalist.
Pokeweed in any of its forms is not recommended for children below 18 years of age. In addition, pregnant women and lactating mothers should refrain from using this. Simply because there is not enough evidence that Pokeweed is harmless to these two categories of people.
You can easily buy Pokeweed under prescription or over the counter. It is available in all quality natural living or herb stores. Some of the popular brands that can be found are:
- Nature’s Apothecary Fresh Plant Single-Herb Extracts
- Herb Lore
- Pokeroot tincture
- Herbal Remedies USA
- Alternative Health and Herbs Remedies
If shopping online is something you are more comfortable with then you can visit some of the following sites to ensure that you get a good deal as well as quality. It goes without saying that you need to check on the credibility of the store that you plan to buy from. Online reviews as well as personal recommendations should be your basis. Some websites you can visit are:
On sale, two fl oz of tincture or oil is in the range of $9.95. Regularly, you can expect to pay between $15 and $18 for the same amount.
Potential Side Effects
Before one decides to use Pokeweed as a form of treatment, it is a good idea to understand the possible side effects that this herb can have. For starters, if you are using the dried version of Pokeweed root you should consume it in very small doses of just a few grams. Anything more and you will suffer from nausea, vomiting, as well as diarrhea. These symptoms can become aggravated when traces of it begin to show in the blood. Prolonged ingestion despite these symptoms could possibly be fatal. Fatalities have occurred, but these have been very few and very far apart.
Some symptoms you can look out for are a burning throat and mouth, fast heartbeat, giddiness as well as fainting. This is in cases of ingestion. Topical ointments can result in rashes or irritability of the skin. Pregnant women and those breastfeeding should refrain from having anything to do with Pokeweed since the berry can stimulate the uterus negatively and induce an abortion.
If you are already on prescribed medication for any ailment, then you should be careful about the use of Pokeweed roots. These could react with your existing medication and induce a completely new set of problems. Pokeweed root can reduce blood pressure.
If you are planning to use this herb then do so only after consulting your doctor on the effect it can have. Since Pokeweed is also an anti-inflammatory and could react negatively with drugs that work towards the same thing. The same is also possible with diuretics. Since it is anti-viral, it may not go well with other antiviral medicines. It may also cause a heart block in some cases.
There are also some precautions that need to be kept in mind when you are handling Pokeweed root. It is always best to wear a set of protective gloves if you are going to be handling the plant. This precaution is to prevent the leaves or any other parts of the plant from coming in contact with cut or broken skin. If Pokeweed root were to mix with your blood, it could have some harmful effects.
Only use the young leaves that have been plucked during the spring. Boil these at least two times and then discard the water. There is a debate on when the berries of this plant are at their most toxic level. While some believe the ripe berries are less toxic, others feel that a certain level of toxicity will prevail. Also important to keep in mind is that Pokeweed is said to have certain narcotic features and therefore should be taken only under a prescription.
Pokeweed in Your Yard
Since pokeweed grows in the wild, there is every chance of you finding it in your backyard one day. This poses a huge chance of poisoning especially if you have children and pets around. They are basically weeds and you should remove them especially if they are growing around the hedges. If you have only a few of them, you can pull them up by the root and destroy them. If you have a huge infestation, dig up the whole patch and plant corn there instead. These clean plants will prevent a re-growth.
If you have these weeds growing in the wastelands around your home, you will need to use specially formulated ester diluted in water to treat it. This keeps the growth of the plants under control.