Vitamins

Tocotrienol

Vitamin E is a vitamin that contains antioxidant properties and is fat soluble. There are eight different formers in which it exists, and two groups under which they fall. Vitamin E may exist in tocopherol and tocotrienol forms, and both of these groups contain alpha, beta, gamma and delta variants.

The most active form found within humans is alpha-tocopherol, which is why that the daily allowance recommendations and dosing are usually under these measurements, or they may instead be measured in International Units, which is what may be used by supplement or food labels. Supplements for vitamin E may be found in synthetic or natural forms, the natural form of which is always prefixed by a acirc Synthetic variants should be prefixed.

Health Benefits

It is often proposed that vitamin E can be used to either treat or prevent a wide variety of different health conditions, and this is mostly based on the fact that it contains antioxidant properties. However, other than treating the rare occurrence of vitamin E deficiency, there is currently no medicinal use of vitamin E supplementation to be clearly proven to treat conditions outside of the daily allowance that is recommended. However, there is currently ongoing research to determine whether it can be beneficial to other diseases, especially in heart disease and cancer.
Tocotrienol Uses
Recently, medical officials have had concerns about whether or not it was safe to take vitamin E supplements, especially in high doses.

This is because it has been proposed that high dosages of vitamin E supplementation has resulted in a higher risk of bleeding, especially in patients who require taking agents to thin their blood, such as aspirin, heparin or warfarin, or in patients who are deficient in the essential vitamin K.

There is also evidence that has recently come to light that regularly taking in a high amount of vitamin E supplements is potentially capable of increasing the risk of death from acirc all causes though the increase is supposedly small.

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However, another study showed that women who regularly took vitamin E did not experience any effect on their mortality. Overall, caution is warranted.

Synonyms

The following is a list of different synonyms that refer to vitamin E, and most of them are specific to certain variants of it, such as tocotrienol.

  • All rac-alpha-tocopherol
  • Alpha-tocopherol
  • Alpha tocopherol acetate
  • Alpha tocopheryl acetate
  • Alpha tocotrienol
  • Antisterility vitamin
  • Beta tocopherol
  • Beta tocotrienol
  • D-alpha-tocopherol
  • D-alpha-tocopheryl
  • D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate
  • D-alpha-tocopheryl succinate
  • D-beta-tocopherol
  • D-delta-tocopherol
  • Delta-tocopherol
  • Delta-tocotrienol
  • D-gamma-tocopherol
  • Dl-alpha-tocopherol
  • Dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate
  • Dl-tocopherol
  • D-tocopherol
  • D-tocopheryl acetate
  • Dl-tocopherol
  • Gamma-tocopherol
  • Gamma-tocotrienol
  • Mixed tocopherols
  • RRR-alpha-tocopherol
  • Spondyvit
  • Tocopherol
  • Tocotrienol
  • Tocotrienol concentrate
  • Tocopheryl succinate
  • Evidence

The section below is a list of different studies of vitamin E based, which are either based on scientific theories or tradition.

Caution is warranted due to the fact that some of the methods have not been thoroughly tested yet in humans, so there may not be proof of the safety or effectiveness of these uses. Evaluate options with a qualified provider of healthcare, especially with the conditions that are potential very serious ones.

Vitamin E deficiency

It is rare for a person to experience vitamin E deficiency, and it is usually only found in people who have a diminished ability to absorb fat through the gut, which is usually due to cystic fibrosis, Crohns disease or have had surgery, people who are malnourished, people who are undergoing low fat diets, people who have a specific genetic condition, such as ataxia and vitamin E deficiency or abetalipoprotinemia, infants who were born prematurely and are low in weight, and infants that are taking formulas that are not fortified.

For these cases, it is acceptable to use vitamin E supplementation for therapy as it has been proven to effectively treat these conditions. Vitamin E supplementation has been proven to effectively halt the progression of future complications due to the deficiency of vitamin E. A physician and a nutritionist should both be involved with diagnosing such a condition and involved with managing the course of treatment for this condition.

Cancer Treatment

There is currently a lack of scientific evidence that is reliable and that of which states that vitamin E supplementation is useful, beneficial or effective as a treatment for any specific kind of cancer whatsoever. People who are currently undergoing radiation or chemotherapy treatment are highly recommended to take precautions when considering vitamin E, because it has been proposed that people who take in too high a dosage of an antioxidant can actually experience an effect that effectively reduces the anti-cancer treatments when undergoing these kinds of therapies.

However, this is still currently an area of controversy with several other studies producing a number of variable results. It is also believed that an unusually high dosage of vitamin E supplementation has a tendency to cause some level of harm to patients suffering the effects of cancer.
Benefits of Tocotrienol
Any patient who is interested in taking a high dosage of any kind of antioxidant, especially that of vitamin E supplementation, during the course of their radiation or chemotherapy is highly recommended to consult their radiation oncologist or their medical oncologist before making any kind of decision with regards to this new kind of therapy.

Uses Based upon Theory or Tradition

The section below is a list of different uses of vitamin E based, which are either based on scientific theories or tradition. Caution is warranted due to the fact that some of the methods have not been thoroughly tested yet in humans, so there may not be proof of the safety or effectiveness of these uses. Evaluate options with a qualified provider of healthcare, especially with the conditions that are potential very serious ones.

  • Abortifacient
  • Acne
  • Aging, or the prevention thereof
  • Aging skin
  • Air pollution, or the protection thereof
  • Allergies
  • Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity, or the prevention thereof
  • Bee stings
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • Beta-thalassemia
  • Blood disorders, especially porphyria
  • Breast inflammation and pain, or mastitis
  • Brochopulmonary dysplasia, which is present in prematurely born infants
  • Bursitis
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Celiac disease
  • Chemotherapy extravasation
  • Chorea, which is a hereditary, progressive and chronic condition
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Crohns disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Dermatitis
  • Diaper rash
  • Digestive enzyme (pancreatic) insufficiency
  • Doxorubicin hair loss, or the prevention thereof
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Dyspraxia
  • Energy enhancement
  • Exercise recovery
  • Frostbite
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Granuloma annulare, or topical vitamin E
  • Hair loss
  • Heart attack
  • Heart transplant rejection, or the prevention thereof
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Huntingtons disease
  • Hypertension
  • Impaired tolerance to glucose
  • Impotence
  • Leg cramps
  • Liver disease, that of which is not directly related to alcohol
  • Lung cancer, or the prevention thereof
  • Male fertility
  • Menopausal symptoms
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Miscarriage
  • Mucositis
  • Muscle strength
  • Myotonic dystrophy
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Nitrate tolerance
  • Oral leukoplakia
  • Pain related to labor and childbirth
  • Pancreatitis, the chronic variety
  • Peptic ulcers
  • Physical endurance
  • Poor posture
  • Post-operative recovery, or the prevention of post-angioplasty restenosis
  • Pre-exclampsia, or the prevention thereof, which is when high blood pressure occurs during pregnancy
  • Radiation induced fibrosis
  • Reperfusion injury, or the protection thereof, during surgery for the heart
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Skeletal muscle damage
  • Skin damage that is responsible by the sun
  • Skin disorders
  • Sperm motility
  • Sunburn
  • Thrombophlebitis, or inflammation of the veins
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Dosing

The doses are indicated below are based solely on traditional use, scientific research, expert opinion or publications. There may be several instances of supplements and herbs that have not yet been thoroughly tested, meaning that the safety and effectiveness have yet to be tested to the fullest extent. Therefore, not all of the doses below will apply to every product. As a result, it is important to always read product labels and it is recommended to discuss dosages with a physician before beginning therapy.

Dietary Sources of vitamin E

There are numerous kinds of food that have vitamin E in them, though storing and cooking is known to destroy some of the vitamins that are otherwise found in the foods. These foods include green leafy vegetables (including spinach), eggs, fruit, fortified cereals, nuts, meat, nut oils, vegetables (including safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed and sunflower), poultry, wheat germ oil, olive oil and whole grains.

Adults (over 18 years old)

Because there are different biological activities available for the many different forms of vitamin E, all of the recommended dietary allowances that are listed for vitamin E are calculated in Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents. They are also translated into International Units, which is the measurement that most labels on food and supplements use to measure. For conversion purposes, a milligram of Alpha Tocopheral Equivalent is equal to 1.5 International Units.

The recommended daily allowance of vitamin E for anybody over the age of 14, whether male or female, is 15 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents on a daily basis, which amounts to 22.5 International Units per day. Women of any age who are also pregnant should take in 15 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 22.5 International Units per day.

Women who are breastfeeding and of any age should obtain 19 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 28.5 International Units.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is currently no recommended daily allowance for vitamin E with regards to infants, though there is a recommended Adequate Intake for infants that are healthy, are breastfeeding and are between the ages of newborn and six months old, and this allowance is 4 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents on a daily basis, which amounts to six International Units per day.

For infants in between the ages of seven months to a year, the recommended daily allowance of vitamin E is seven milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents on a daily basis, which amounts to 10.5 International Units per day. Children between the ages of one and three years are recommended to take six milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to nine International Units per day.

Children between the ages of four and eight years are recommended to take seven milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 10.5 International Units per day. Children between the ages of nine and 13 years are recommended to take eleven milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 16.5 International Units per day.

Children over the age of fourteen years are recommended to take 15 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 22.5 International Units per day. Pregnant women of any age are recommended to take 15 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 22.5 International Units per day.

Breastfeeding women of any age are recommended to take 19 milligrams Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents of vitamin E on a daily basis, which amounts to 28.5 International Units per day.

Safety

The United States Food and Drug Administration does not take the initiative in strictly regulating the usage of supplements or herbs. There is no guarantee present for the safety, purity or strength of the products, and the effects of each product may vary. To guarantee safety, it is important to carefully read the labels on the products.

For those who have a medical condition or are currently taking other supplements, drugs or herbs, it is essential to first speak with a qualified provider of healthcare before taking on any new kinds of therapy. If any side effects should occur, immediately consult a provider of healthcare.

Allergies

There have been reported instances of skin reactions, such as eczema and contact dermatitis in association with the usage of topical preparations of vitamin E, including deodorants with the vitamin in them or certain ointments. It is suggested that those who have either a known or suspected hypersensitivity to any kind of vitamin E should not use these products.

Side effects and warnings

There is also evidence that has recently come to light that regularly taking in a high amount of vitamin E supplements is potentially capable of increasing the risk of death from all causes though the increase is supposedly small. However, another study showed that women who regularly took vitamin E did not experience any effect on their mortality.

Conclusions about this are often criticized by experts of the field because these results are generally based on recalculations, making them meta-analyses, of the results of studies from the past, which have had a mix in the level of quality, with a mixture of different results, and they often took place with people who had chronic illnesses.

Nonetheless, this is currently the only and best available evidence of science at this time, and it should therefore be recommended that chronically making use of vitamin E should be done so with caution, and it should also be recommended that taking vitamin E at high doses is to be avoided. However, it is very uncommon for instances of acute vitamin E overdose to occur.

Length of Dosage

When taking vitamin E supplements for a short period of time, it is mostly considered safe to do so, provided the dosage only goes up as far as is the recommended tolerable UL, or upper intake level. It is possible, however, for vitamin E to be somewhat unsafe if a person exceeds this tolerable upper intake level when taking vitamin E supplements orally. The recommended daily allowance that of which is naturally obtained by way of food consumption has been officially considered to be beneficial and safe.

There have been reported instances of skin reactions, such as eczema and contact dermatitis in association with the usage of topical preparations of vitamin E, including deodorants with the vitamin in them or certain ointments. It is suggested that those who have either a known or suspected hypersensitivity to any kind of vitamin E should not use these products.

In some rare cases, there have been reports in studies that have associated vitamin E supplementation with instances of symptoms similar to that of influenza, especially when taking vitamin E at high doses, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, as well as abdominal pain. There is also the potentially increased risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis when taking a high dosage of vitamin E supplements.

Potential Health Problems

Also in rare cases, there have been reports in studies that have associated vitamin E supplementation with instances of diminished functions of the kidney and with gonadal dysfunction.

Recently, medical officials have had concerns about whether or not it was safe to take vitamin E supplements, especially in high doses. This is because it has been proposed that high dosages of vitamin E supplementation has resulted in a higher risk of bleeding, especially in patients who require taking agents to thin their blood, such as aspirin, heparin or warfarin, or in patients who are deficient in the essential vitamin K.

The bleeding may occur due to platelet aggregation being inhibited and due to factors of the vitamin K dependent antagonism, especially in those who are deficient in the vitamin K. Patients studied who also took vitamin E saw a small increase in gum bleeding and in the rate of hemorrhagic, or bleeding, stroke. This is especially true in patients with aspirin in their treatment course.

Increased Bleeding

The increased risk of bleeding has been noticed in animals that also make use of warfarin. Other studies outside of this, however, have not yet shown any increase of any greater incidence of bleeding due to vitamin E dosages. There has been bleeding noticed in patients who were repeatedly provided large doses of synthetic vitamin E, or all rac alpha tocopherol, in the intravenous variety.

Any patient who is known to have a bleeding disorder or is taking a drug that is shown may increase the chances of bleeding are advised to proceed taking vitamin E with caution. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage to tailor the need of a patient.

In rare instances, it has been reported in studies for vitamin E that the supplementation thereof has been linked to fatigue, dizziness, weakness, fatigue or blurred vision, especially when it is provided in unusually high dosages.

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Patients who suffer from retinitis pigmentosa are warned not to take oral vitamin E because, not only does it seem to not have an effect on slowing down visual decline but, it may be linked towards the loss of visual activity occurring at a much more rapid rate, though the results and the validity of the finding have both been questioned.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

There are many kinds of prenatal vitamins available that have traces of vitamin E in them. It may be preferable to obtain natural forms of the vitamin E as opposed to taking in synthetic forms.

It is not recommended to use vitamin E beyond what is recommended as listed above the recommended daily allowance as provided for women who are otherwise healthy and pregnant. There is currently not enough evidence to conclude either way whether or not it is safe to take a higher level of injected, topical or oral vitamin E throughout the duration of pregnancy or breastfeeding, so it is therefore not recommended to do so.

If any pregnant or breastfeeding woman is interested in taking any kind of extra dosage of vitamin E supplementation for any reason are highly recommended to consult a physician before taking any vitamins.

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