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Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid, commonly known as vitamin C, is an organic compound required for the production of collagen in humans. Humans cannot make their own vitamin C and so must obtain it either through their diet or in supplementary form.

Dietary Sources

Vitamin C can be found in many fruits and vegetables including most berries (e.g. blackcurrants, raspberries) , tropical fruits such as mangoes, guavas and papayas, and many citrus fruits such as oranges and grapefruits. Many vegetables, including broccoli and cauliflower, have high contents of vitamin C. Although not as popular, the Camu Camu found in the Amazon Rainforest and the Australian-native Kakadu plum have the highest concentrations of vitamin C.

The maturation of the fruit or vegetable plays an important role in the content of vitamin C, with ascorbic acid levels peaking at the time when the fruit or vegetable is at its ripest and youngest stage. Vitamin C is very unstable and begins to lose its potency once it is exposed to air, water, heat and extreme cold. Storing fruits in the freezer will cause them to lose up to a third of their vitamin C.

Boiling vegetables will also do the same, and sometimes the loss of vitamin C can be even greater. Vitamin C can also be taken as a nutritional supplement in various forms, although raw foods are absorbed more easily and many believe that the benefits of vitamin C from raw foods surpass the benefits from manufactured ascorbic acid.

History and Origin of Usage

Orange Juice The ability of citrus fruits in the prevention and treatment of scurvy was discovered in 1747 by the British navy surgeon James Lind.

During a controlled experiment on board a British ship, Lind added oranges and lemons to the diets of some of the crew members as prevention for scurvy.

The experiment concluded that citrus fruits were effective in preventing the disease.

However, it wasn’t until 1912, when Norwegian scientists Axel Holst and Theodor Frolich began their research on the antiscorbutic properties of certain foods that vitamin C was isolated and identified. The term ascorbic acid was later coined by Hungarian researchers, Joseph L. Svirbely and Albert Szent-Györgyi, and American researcher, Charles Glen King. In 1933 the Polish chemist Tadeus Reichstein was able to synthesize vitamin C, and in 1934 Sir Walter Norman Haworth, along with the British chemist Sir Edmund Langley Hirst, was also able to artificially produce ascorbic acid independently of Reichstein’s research for which Haworth received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.


Ascorbic acid is necessary for the production of collagen and for the proper function of connective tissues, especially bones, teeth, and cartilage. Inadequate intake of vitamin C can result in bleeding gums and gingivitis, and make bones especially susceptible to fractures.

It is a powerful antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory properties essential in wound healing. It is thought to prevent deterioration of the skin due to atmospheric free radicals by preventing the oxidation of the cells. In clinical trials, antioxidants were effective in reducing cardiovascular diseases including heart attacks and strokes. In combination with insulin, Vitamin C has been used to control the glucose levels in people suffering from Type 1 diabetes. Ongoing research is currently being conducted to test its effectiveness on Type 2 diabetes as well.
Vitamin C Usage
Lipoproteins also depend on vitamin C and so any tissues that contain fat are especially vulnerable to vitamin C deficiency. Smoking increases the body’s toxicity levels and so inhibit the absorption of ascorbic acid, so smokers are in greater need of high doses of vitamin C to detoxify the body.

Women who are taking oral contraceptives should take higher doses of vitamin C as oral contraceptives reduce vitamin C absorption. People using antibiotics should also take vitamin C to replenish the nutrients lost when taking antibiotics and to strengthen the body’s immune system in order to help the body’s ability to better utilize the antibiotics.

Popular Variations

Vitamin C can be found in several pill forms, the most popular being water-soluble tablets, capsules, chewable tablets and powder formulas. Emergen-C is a brand popular for its single dose packaged powdered vitamin C. Many vitamin stores like GNC and Vitamin Shoppe sell vitamin C under their own brand name. High concentrations of vitamin C can be found in several plants used to make tea, especially rose hips and the Chinese Camellia sinensis, otherwise known as green tea.

Nowadays, many drinks and foods are packed with high levels of vitamin C. Drinks such as Vitamin Water and cereals such as All Bran have high levels of vitamin C. In the cosmetic industry, Ascorbic acid is used for reducing skin discoloration, preventing photo-aging, treating wrinkles and healing blemishes as a result of acne. Obagi, SkinCeuticals and Cellex-C are high end cosmetic lines that use vitamin C to make creams, cleansers and serum formulations in varying strengths with considerable market success.

Proven and Unproven Health Benefits

Some claims have been made about the effectiveness of topical vitamin C as a contraceptive immediately following intercourse. This procedure is thought to increase the acidity levels in the vagina and thus create an inhospitable environment for the sperm.

It also works by inhibiting the production of progesterone, a hormone needed for a successful pregnancy. However, these claims are unsupported by medical evidence. Because of the vitamin’s ability to protect the body from free radicals, many believe that vitamin C can help in the prevention and treatment of cancer, especially stomach cancer. Although these claims have not been proven, no adverse reactions have been observed in administering vitamin C in addition to tradition cancer treatments.

Vitamin C also helps the body utilize better absorption of iron. For this reason people with illnesses prone to high iron should avoid high intakes of vitamin C.

Typical Dosage and Usage

The recommended dietary dosage from national and international organizations varies from 45 milligrams per day to a maximum of 2 grams (2,000 milligrams) per day. In the United States the recommended dose for adults is between 60 and 90 milligrams per day, while the World health organization recommends an intake of 45 milligrams per day. The

National Academy of Sciences recommends a daily intake of 90 milligrams for men, 75 milligrams for women and between 45 and 60 milligrams for adolescents. However, this should just be used a s general guidelines as each person’s absorption of vitamin C varies and higher doses are recommended for people with weak immune systems or people living in urban environment who are prone to second hand smoke and air pollution.

People working in labs or factories that deal with chemicals will also benefit from an increased daily intake of vitamin C to counteract toxic poisoning.

Regional Legal Status

Vitamin C is legal in all states and recommended as a necessary vitamin for the prevention of scurvy and for the proper function of all organs. Parents are encouraged to start administering vitamin C to their children at a young age and especially during teeth formation to ensure strong teeth and healthy gums.

Side Effects

It is generally believed that the necessary daily intake of vitamin C can be achieved through a balanced diet without the use of supplements. However, overdosing on vitamin C has no long term effects. Diarrhea is one of the most common temporary side effects. Orthomolecular scientists believe that diarrhea is an indication of when the body has reached its maximum necessary daily intake as it begins rejecting the unused vitamin.

Because vitamin C aids in the absorption of iron, iron poisoning can occur at extremely high levels of vitamin C, and people with hemochromatosis should avoid vitamin C beyond the recommended daily dosage.

Product Cost and Availability

Vitamin C is readily available and accessible in all western countries either in manufactured form of by maintaining a well balanced diet. Third world countries that do not have access to supplements and raw fruits and vegetables are commonly affected by cardiovascular diseases.

The cost of vitamin C can vary greatly depending on the brand name and formulation of the product. Raw foods are affected by regional and global availability, as well as weather and agriculture conditions and some people claim that organic fruits and vegetables help the body to better absorb the vitamin because synthetic materials are thought to interfere with the absorption of vitamins in general, although there is no clinical evidence to support this theory.

Vitamin c serums used for the face and primarily the skin can vary between 10 and a 100 plus dollars for a one ounce bottle. Since vitamin C is very unstable, especially in liquid form, how vitamin C is synthesized before it enters the bottles and how it is store also affect the effectiveness and longevity of the product. Manufacturers of high end vitamin C serum claim to create their vitamin C in a hospitable environment that stabilizes vitamins C in order to maintain its potency for the longest time possible.

Manufacturing and Packaging

Since vitamin C oxidizes very quickly, the manufacturing process plays an important role in the effectiveness of the product. Vitamin c serums should generally be stored in dark bottles to prevent light from entering. Vitamin C serums should be store in a controlled room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees Celsius in a dry place away from exposure to sunlight. The pH balance of the skin product also plays an important role in the absorption of the vitamin C. A pH balance between 2.0 and 4.0 provides the best skin absorption.

Because L-ascorbic acid is not stable, a stabilization process has to occur to prevent the serum from oxidizing and turning a dark yellow-brown. Homemade creams are increasing in popularity especially because of the high cost factor to purchase these creams and due to the oxidation process that naturally occur with stored products. By using a mixture of L-ascorbic acid and glycerin which can be purchased from any pharmacy counter, a homemade cream can be stored in the fridge for three to five days.

Additional Resources

US National Library of Medicine
University of Maryland Medical Center


Reduce Uric Acid

About Uric Acid

Uric acid is another substance that is created naturally by our body as it goes through the process of eliminating purine from the body. Purine is a substance that is naturally occurring in many food products with high concentrations in meat products. In another mystery of nature and biology it has been shown that too much uric acid can cause problems for the body while also showing some beneficial characteristics. How does this conflict work itself out and how is it possible to maintain a balance between overly high levels of uric acid and amounts that are too low to maintain essential benefits?

This article will provide a brief history of Uric Acid including a look at where it comes from, what foods contain the building blocks for uric acid, and popular uses. I will also show how it is used today and then I will examine some claims and myths about uric acid to discover the truth regarding this often misunderstood compound.

Where Does Uric Acid Come From?

As mentioned earlier, uric acid does not occur naturally but is a by-product of a natural process. Uric acid is produced when the kidneys process purines. Purines are a natural element found in almost all food types. The reason for this ubiquity is that purines are really an essential element for life as they are a part of the chemical structure of all plants and animals. There is a small sub-set of foods that contain a high concentration of purines. These include organ meats like kidneys, livers or fish such as mackerel and herring. When these foods are ingested, the purines are then broken down. The end result of this process is uric acid.

It seems like almost all of our natural processes have a downside, however, and it is not any different with uric acid production. Too much uric acid production can be taxing on the kidneys. The human kidneys is a master balancer as it ensures the right balance between uric acid that is needed for different bodily processes and left over uric acid that needs to dealt with. When too much uric acid is taken in, the kidneys process what is needed and then use the excess uric acid to form crystals. These crystals are then deposited into natural storage areas in our bodies.


Unfortunately for humans, these storage areas are in various joints like elbows and knees, or far off appendages like toes. When too many of these crystals build up in these areas they can cause inflammation of the joints which can cause unbearable pain and swelling.

These are the unmistakable symptoms of gout. Gout has been with us for centuries. We have read about many a king who suffered from gout as a result of his unlimited appetite. King Henry is a historical sovereign who comes to mind immediately. It is due to the history of gout that we often think of it as a dead ailment. That is far from true. The same processes that created gout in the past are still around today causing suffering for new generations of humans.

Gout Myths

Gout from Uric Acid

That leads us to examine our first claim about uric acid; that uric acid and purine consumption will ultimately lead to gout. The statement is only half true. It is an excess consumption of purines that lead to an overabundance of uric acid and ultimately, gout. Uric acid, as it turns out, is an important element for humans to have around. Uric acid is actually an anti-oxidant that is responsible for maintaining the health of our blood vessel linings.

As a consequence, it is vitally important to maintain a moderate level of uric acid in our bloodstream. So, we can lay to rest the myth that all uric acid is damaging. Like all things natural, there needs to be a balance in order to maintain health and a complete lack of uric acid would actually lead to major problems.

Another claim around uric acid and purines is that all meat products are responsible for the same level of uric acid production. Recent research has turned this assumption on its head. When it comes to purines, not all foods are equal. Research is beginning to show that purines from meat products and fish will lead to gout more quickly than purines from vegetables. Vegetable consumption, surprisingly, actually neither increases nor decreases gout risk, while purines obtained from dairy products may decrease gout risk. So it may be important to include more dairy products in our diet to maintain our daily average of 600mgs of uric acid a day.

Decreasing Uric Acid Production

The problem that many run into when forced to decrease their uric acid production is that the foods with the highest concentrations of purines are some of the healthiest foods available. Chief among foods with high purine content is liver. Liver is also considered to be a vital, healthy food. Many people need to continue to eat some of these foods for other health reasons not related to their issues with uric acid and purines. A simple solution is to continue to eat healthy foods such as salmon, liver and asparagus. It may be wise to cut back on the portions.

Dietary Considerations

Another possible solution would be to boil some of these foods rather than frying or sautéing them. This leads us to the exploration of another claim regarding uric acid and purines.

Boiling Food

This claim states that cooking foods high in purine content actually increases the chance that excess uric acid production will occur. Recent examinations of this claim show that the way these foods are cooked is extremely important.

For instance, when boiling some of the high purine content foods, some of the purines become separated and end up in the water.

If the water is discarded, then the purine content of the food is actually decreased.

This leads to the conclusion that those people on a purine restricted diet due to high uric acid levels may not have to eat the majority of their foods raw.

They can actually cook some of their favorite foods and still decrease their uric acid levels.

Alcohol and Uric Acid

There has also been a claim throughout history that increased alcohol intake also leads to an overabundance of uric acid in the body and eventually, gout.

Again if we go back to our history lesson we often recall that many of the historic gout sufferers had a propensity for drinking copious amounts of red wine.

This claim is in fact true. Research has shown that alcohol does reduce the body’s water content. Water is needed to process purines into uric acid and to flush excess uric acid from the body. If this does not happen, then more uric acid crystals may be formed which again is a leading cause for a serious case of extremely painful gout.

Kidney Stones

Another side effect of increased uric acid in the blood is kidney stones. Kidney stones develop from inefficient kidneys. Kidneys that are busy processing very high levels of purines tend to lose their efficiency. This is obviously another important reason for monitoring purine and uric acid levels in the body.

Weight Loss

People that are severely overweight also usually have higher levels of uric acid than the general population. Researchers are not completely sure why this is the case but repeated studies have shown that people who reduce their weight also tend to increase the body’s efficiency in processing purines. Obviously, losing weight can help the body improve purine processing but if excess weight is dropped too rapidly, there can actually be a short-term spike in uric acid levels.

The reason for this is quite simple due to the fact that the body loses muscle during periods of extreme hunger. This is a reason that fasting or extreme dieting is not a good idea for lowering purine and uric acid levels. It is a much better idea to go on a stable diet that focuses on food with lower purine levels while drinking plenty of water.

Soft Drinks and Uric Acid

Now it’s time for a quick word about soft drinks and their link to increased uric acid levels. It turns out that alcoholic beverages are not the only liquid villain when it comes to high uric acid levels and gout. People who drink just two soft drinks a day have an 85% greater chance of developing a case of gout than those who do not. This is due to the high levels of fructose in soft drinks.

The kidneys have a tough time processing large amounts of the fructose found in soft drinks. This naturally leads to questions about other sugary foods such as candy or syrups. It would be wise to avoid those food choices as well. Candy is high in fructose and should be avoided as well.

Ways to Avoid Issues

That covers most of the claims regarding uric acid. There are some things that can help reduce the potential for developing gout that can be used in conjunction with drinking plenty of water and following a diet with lower levels of purine.


First and most important is regular exercise. It seems like exercise is indeed the magic elixir for maladies and it helps with high uric acid levels as well. It may be the fact that exercise is related to lower levels of uric acid through weight reduction alone but it has been shown to be helpful.

Fruit & Vegetable Supplements

It also appears that celery and celery extracts can have a positive impact on uric acid levels. Celery can now be taken in a capsule form. Celery extract is perfectly legal and is available through a number of online herb shops. It looks like most sites are selling doses that run from 50 to 100mgs and the price ranges from $6 to $20 a bottle and most bottles contain anywhere from 50 to 100 capsules.

As with any drug, herb or extract, do your homework and check with your doctor to ensure that there will not be any dangerous conflicts with prescriptions you are currently taking and that there will not be any side effects that could also detract from the effectiveness of some of your prescriptions.

Eating Cherries

Finally, there is some late breaking research that shows that cherries might also contain elements that are effective in battling increased uric acid levels. The cherries have to be tart and they work by dissolving some of the uric acid crystals that build up in the joints.


It also bears repeating that water is an essential ingredient for processing purines. The kidneys, and every other organ, for that matter need water to function. Drinking 8 glasses of water a day should dramatically reduce uric acid levels in the body in a short period of time.

Keeping a Healthy Uric Acid Level

That wraps up this brief look at purines and uric acid. In summary, it is important to note that purines and uric acid are not necessarily bad things. Purines are found in just about every conceivable food and are an essential element of life. The production of uric acid is a completely normal process and we humans need uric acid to improve the condition of our blood vessels.

Like everything else in nature and in life, there has to be a balance. The body does react negatively when uric acid levels get too high by storing the excess in joints and appendages. It is important to remember that when this happens, balance can be restored by switching to a low purine level diet and increasing the intake of water to help the kidneys process purines effectively.



As science continues to push the boundaries in a search for new ways to extend and improve the life spans of humans, it should come as no surprise that many of the cures are found in substances and organic materials that have been a part of our environment for thousands of years.

The latest example of this is the recent discovery of how flavonoids can act as a possible deterrent against some forms of cancer and possibly extend the natural lifetimes of humans. This article will briefly examine what flavonoids are, where they can be found, some of the facts and myths surrounding the usage of flavonoids and where they can be found today. It will also examine the legality of flavonoids and what possible side effects, if any, are associated with flavonoid usage.
Types of Flavonoids

What are Flavonoids?

Flavonoids, also referred to as bio-flavonoids, are naturally occurring biological compounds that are often found in plants. Quercetin, Kaempferol, Catechin and EGCG are examples of flavonoids. They are actually a type of anti-oxidant that act as a secondary metabolite.

This simply means that they do not participate in the actual growth process of the plants. Flavonoids come from plants and are the materials that give many plants their vibrant colors. They also participate in plant’s defensive mechanisms since they help prevent insect and microbe attacks.

Flavonoids are often found in the following food types:

  • Blueberries
  • Red beans
  • Cranberries
  • Blackberries

Many other types of food also contain flavonoids including red wine, many types of nuts and fruits, and vegetables.

Flavonoid History

Flavonoids actually have a long and varied history. Since as early as 1936, consumers have been ingesting flavonoids in an attempt to improve heart health and overall well being. In the early years, the primary delivery mechanism for flavonoids was citrus fruits. As research continued, however, it was found that many other food types contain flavonoids. Some additional foods containing flavonoids included chocolate and different types of tea.

The news about dark chocolate caused quite a stir as it seemed counter-intuitive that something so decadent and tasty could contain physical properties that extend the average person’s lifespan. They same process occurred when many doctors actually recommended a glass of red wine every because of the flavonoids content. At this point, many researchers are actually trying to develop a type of pill that can be taken daily as a substitute for drinking a glass or two of wine.

Flavonoid Benefits

There are many documented benefits associated with partaking in a diet that is rich in flavonoids. A few of the health benefits include:

  1. A reduced risk of cancer due to the powerful way they help the body build immunity and fight off unhealthy “scavengers.”
  2. Flavonoids have also been found to help fend off the onset of cardio-vascular diseases and may help prevent related consequences such as heart attack or stroke.
  3. The anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoids also help the body fight off the worst affects of allergies. This is great news for millions of people who suffer every year from the ravages of hay fever.
  4. Flavonoids have also been found to inhibit the formation of blood clots, which also prevents the onset of heart attack and strokes.
  5. Recent studies have also shown that flavonoids have properties which also prevent ulcers.

Helpful Ingredients

So what properties in flavonoids provide all of these healthful benefits to people? As a class of compounds, flavonoids have been referred to as “nature’s biological response modifiers” because of their ability to modify the body’s reaction to other compounds such as allergens, viruses, and carcinogenic properties. In addition, flavonoids act as powerful antioxidants by providing remarkable protection against oxidative and free-radical damage.

Flavonoids possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, and epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of these compounds is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Many of the medicinal actions of foods, juices, herbs, and bee pollen are directly related to their flavonoid content. Although not considered vitamins, flavonoids have a number of nutritional functions have been described as biological response modifiers; most act as antioxidants, and some have anti-inflammatory properties.

Common Flavonoid Myths

Myth 1

Flavonoids are not as prevalent in food as they are in beverages. This statement is only true if a person’s diet only consists of hamburgers and pizza. If a balanced diet is followed, including plenty of fruits and beverages and the occasional glass of wine then it is fairly certain that plenty of flavonoids will be consumed.

Myth 2

Without additives, flavonoids will not have an impact. This is also untrue. While the environment does affect the potency of flavonoids found in many foods, it really does not impact the effectiveness of a strong tea containing flavonoids. Sometimes a single serving of tea will contain up to 200 mgs of health boosting flavonoids.

Myth 3

One flavonoid alone will make a difference. Research has found that flavonoids do work best when they are ingested in pairs or groups. This is why a diet containing many flavonoids or anti-oxidants will prove much more effective in the long run than taking a single pill.

Flavonoids Today

There are a wide variety of ways to take flavonoids today. Some of the most popular ways people take flavonoids at the most basic level is to alter what they eat and what they drink. Many people are switching to diets that are heavy in fruits, vegetables and nuts. They are supplementing this diet by enjoying the occasional piece of dark chocolate. As far as liquids are concerned, the biggest change people are making is to make sure they enjoy a cup of green tea every day.

While many teas carry certain types of anti-oxidants and flavonoids, green tea has been shown to have the best combination of flavonoids. Red wine is also now a popular supplement as a number of studies have shown that a glass or two of red wine a day provides a number of health and longevity benefits for people.
Obtaining Flavonoids
Now there is a more advanced way for consumers to ensure that they get their daily dose of flavonoids. There is a large and ever-growing market of consumers who would like to enjoy the benefits of flavonoids, but they may not have the time to gather the ingredients every day to eat a consistent diet of foods high in flavonoid content.

Mass Marketing

Now researchers are mass marketing flavonoid capsules that provide a daily dose of flavonoid content in one capsule. One example of this is the product, Isoquercetin. This product is all natural, so there are not any side effects but the long term positive effects can be dramatic.

Another example of this that is not out in mass quantities yet, but should be soon is the supplement based on red-wine called resveratrol. In certain studies, resveratrol has been shown to dramatically increase the life expectancies of mice. There is great hope for the future with this promising supplement.

Protection Benefits

It has been fairly well established that flavonoids offer a high level of protection against toxicity and a large number of potential diseases. It is important to know that in this case there may be a chance that there is too much of a good thing.

There have been a couple of studies that have shown that in certain cases, an introduction of an exceptionally large number of flavonoids and anti-oxidants have actually created some cancer cells to start growing. There is a misconception out there that a mega-dose of a “good” thing will provide more benefits. This thinking can lead to the introduction of flavonoids at a rate that can cause some pretty serious unintended consequences for the human body.

What Is the Right Amount?

So what is the proper way to take flavonoids and what is the right amount? Well, the basic answer is that it is thought that a typical person should consume 20 to 100 grams of flavonoids each day. This is the amount that is consumed in many Asian countries through their normal diets and it has been found in study after study that residents in Asian countries live longer on average than those in western countries who do not take the same amount of flavonoids in their diets.

It is entirely possible to ingest this amount of flavonoids through a daily, healthy diet. The danger actually comes with supplements. Some of the supplements on the market have doses that range from 100 to 500 grams of anti-oxidants and flavonoids daily. It is also normal for people to double up and take this dose for different types of anti-oxidants.

Healthy Diet

It would be wise for a person to eat a little citrus in the morning, followed by a snack of nuts and vegetables at mid-morning. At lunch, a serving of healthy meat with tomatoes would contain a decent amount of flavonoids, especially if this is followed by a late afternoon cup of green tea or even coffee. At dinner, another salad and then a side of vegetables will be beneficial, especially if the beverage accompanying the dinner is a glass of red-wine.

This leads to a quick note about children. Can children enjoy the same benefits of flavonoids even if they cannot enjoy the benefits of a glass of wine? The short answer to this question is a definite yes. Obviously, growing children will not need the same amount of flavonoids as an adult so if a child’s diet is altered to include a few fruits, vegetables and an occasional piece of dark chocolate instead of milk chocolate then it is a certainty that they will get the flavonoids needed to improve health and vitality.


Of course, it is not always possible to eat all of the fruits and vegetables required to get all of the needed flavonoids. In that case, supplements offer a decent alternative. It is important, however, to pay attention to the dosage and to stay away from pumping too many flavonoids and anti-oxidants into a diet.

There are a large number of websites that sell flavonoids and anti-oxidants. Many are now produced by the same companies that produce vitamins and other supplements. Always keep in mind, however, that this is not the same as eating a diet high in flavonoids.

It is also possible to get pretty significant discounts when purchasing flavonoids online. Typically, a consumer can earn a large percentage off of their purchase by purchasing more than one bottle or two different types of flavonoids.

Flavonoids Conclusions

This concludes this brief examination of flavonoids. They have been our food sources basically since we began eating plants but it is only just now that we are truly discovering how beneficial they are to the human body. Eating a diet high in flavonoids can help a person fight off diseases and extend life. Expect more breakthroughs in the future as scientists continue to unlock the beneficial secrets of flavonoids.



Tyrosol is an antioxidant that is naturally present in several foods such as wines and green tea. However, tyrosol is present most abundantly in olives. The antioxidant is present in the leaves, fruit, and, therefore, in the oil of the plant. It is classified as a phenolic antioxidant. Anything in the phenolic family has great antiseptic value.

Although there are some very minor differences, tyrosol is considered almost identical to another antioxidant called hydroxytyrosol. In fact, the two antioxidants are often considered interchangeable.

The main job of any antioxidant is to protect cells and tissue from oxidative injury. Oxidative injuries to the brain can cause Parkinson’s disease as well as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Oxidative injuries can also cause cancer and heart disease.

Historical Usage

Tyrosol in Olive Oil

Olive oil was considered one of the “miracle foods” of the ancient world particularly in southern Europe and the Middle East. Modern scientist and doctors have now discovered that the food’s medicinal effectiveness is largely due the fact that the antioxidant tyrosol is present in it.
Tyrosol Usage
Historically, olive oil was used to aid digestion and to fight cancer, particularly that which affected the skin. Also, it was one of the main products used in the ancient world to help promote cardiovascular health. It would often be applied topically to help remove blemishes such as scars and acne; it also was used to heal other skin problems such as dry skin, rashes, and eczema.

Olive oil was also thought to have anti-aging properties. In addition to helping skin and hair, olive oil was thought to delay mental deterioration.

Tyrosol in Green Tea

Green tea is a traditional medicine from Asia, particularly from China. The tea acts as an antioxidant, because of tyrosol and several other components, and was thought to cure cancer and to promote cardiovascular and skin health.

However, tyrosol has never been considered the main reason for green tea’s effectiveness. Although the antioxidant is present, the tea’s medicinal value is attributed to other sources.

Modern Usage

Olives are still considered the number one providers of tyrosol. The antioxidant is also present in green tea; however, it is not very abundant and the tea is rarely recommended when a person wants to increase his or her intake of tyrosol. Wine is not usually considered either; however, recent studies have shown that tyrosol may be a major player in the “French paradox”.

Modern Medicinal Usage

Although tyrosol has not been proven to cure cancer, it can help prevent it. Also, studies have shown that those who regularly consume olive oil are at a lower risk of heart disease and mental impairment. In fact, it has been proven to greatly lower a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Topically applied olive oil can also promote skin health and can keep skin from aging. However, particularly when treating acne, it should be remembered that tyrosol rich olive oil is not a “magic elixir”. Also, modern medicine has proven that tyrosol does indeed have anti-aging properties similar to those of vitamin E.
However, in order for olive oil and/or tyrosol to effectively treat or prevent any malady, it must be consumed over a long period of time; preferably, throughout a person’s entire life.

The Mediterranean Diet

In several ancient cultures, particularly those of Italy and Greece, olive oil was one of the main components of what is now known as the Mediterranean diet. This tyrosol rich diet has been proven to lower the risk of developing cancer, dementia, and several heart diseases, particularly coronary heart disease. The Mediterranean diet also lowers the risk of mini strokes.

Jeanne Louise Calment

One of the most famous cases that prove tyrosol’s effectiveness is that of Jeanne Louise Calment. Calment live from February 21, 1875 to August 4, 1997, a total of 122 years and 164 days; Calment still holds the record for longest confirmed lifespan. When asked about her longevity and shockingly good health, Calment attributed it to her extensive culinary as well as topical use of olive oil.

Calment literally died of old age; she never suffered a heart attack or a stroke and, despite having smoked for 96 years of her life, she never developed cancer.

Legal Status

Tyrosol is one hundred percent legal in every country. It is legal because it can only be found in foods that have been proven to be perfectly safe. So far, there are not any synthetic versions of the antioxidant. Tyrosol and/or hydroxytyrosol that are used in dietary supplements and other medical products are usually available without a prescription.

Typical Dosage

In general, because the antioxidant is found in common food products, a person can ingest as much or as little tyrosol as he or she wants. However, in order for tyrosol to have any impact on a person’s health, he or she must frequently consume substantial quantities of it. Olives and green tea are considered perfectly safe for adults, children, and even pregnant and nursing mothers.

A person can consume as much green tea as he or she desires and it is advisable to either follow the Mediterranean diet or to regularly cook with olive oil. Olive oil can be taken straight; however, it is not recommended because of the oil’s bitter taste which is, in fact, caused by the presence of tyrosol.

When taking a tyrosol/hydroxytyrosol supplement, it is advisable for adults to take approximately 300 mg, one
to four times a day. However, it is best to follow the dosage instructions on the supplement’s bottle. Children generally receive a slightly smaller dose than that taken by adults.

Side Effects

Tyrosol, in and of itself, does not cause any adverse effects. However, a person can be allergic to the product he or she uses to gain the antioxidant. This is typically a problem for those who are allergic to olives. Hives are the most common symptom of an allergic reaction. High quality extra virgin olive oil should not cause an allergic reaction unless a person has a serious olive allergy. If taken in large quantities, olive oil can act as a laxative.

Although it is very rare, some people are allergic to green tea. Once again, hives are the most common symptom.

Available Forms

Olive Oil

Although tyrosol is present in all parts of the olive plant, it is most abundantly present in olive oil. It is particularly recommended to use extra virgin olive oil. It is available at nearly every supermarket and health food store. However, it is usually extremely expensive; for example, it is not uncommon for 16 ounces of olive oil to cost $30. Even buying bulk olive oil is not very cost effective. The best place to find special deals and different brands is This website provides information about several brands of olive oil and offers the product in quantities from 16 ounces to lager bulk sizes.
Tyrosol in Olive Oil

Olive Leaf

Olive leaves can be made into teas and capsules. Pre-made teabags can be rather difficult to find in traditional health stores. They can, however, be purchased online; the usual cost is about $7 for 20 teabags. One of the websites that provide pre-made olive leaf teabags is Olive leaves can also be bought bulk and used in teabags., which sells the leaves for $5 a pound, is the best supplier.

Olive leaf capsules are quite common and are made by Nature’s Way as well as several other common brands. They can be purchased at most health and wellness stores and usually cost about $8 for 60 capsules.
However, tyrosol is not as abundant in olive leaves as it is in the plant’s fruit and oil. If a person wants to take tyrosol for medical purposes, he or she is better off taking olive oil or a tyrosol dietary supplement.

Olive Oil Skin Creams

Olive oil is a typical additive in many skin creams. Many of these products can be found in the beauty section of nearly every department store. However, it should be remembered that tyrosol, and, therefore, olive oil, is only effective if taken in large amounts. Be sure that olive oil is one of the main ingredients.

Several websites, including, offer reasonably priced skin creams with large amounts of the antioxidant.

Tyrosol/Hydroxytyrosol Dietary Supplements

Hydroxytyrosol taken from olive oil is often made into an extract that is available as tinctures and pills. Unfortunately, since hydroxytyrosol is not a common dietary supplement, it can be almost impossible to find in common health and wellness stores. It can be found, however, from several online suppliers such as and Unfortunately, Puritan’s Pride does not carry tyrosol/hydroxytyrosol products.

Hydroxytyrosol tinctures usually cost about $20 for two ounces. 60 pills usually cost about $25. The most popular hydroxytyrosol brand is Olivenol.

Green Tea

Green tea is available, at a reasonable cost, at nearly every supermarket and health store as well as online. However, if a person is planning on developing a tyrosol rich diet, it is advisable for he or she to consider using olive oil instead.



Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Acetyl-L- carnitine, commonly referred to as ALCAR, is very important to the human body. The nutrient is one of several forms of carnitine found within the body. The kidneys help to regulate the level of carnitines. All carnitines are antioxidants, helping to repair damage to cells and fight the effects of oxidative stress. Because the body naturally produces carnitines, they are considered nonessential nutrients. By generating energy from amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates, ALCAR acts as an energy reservoir and helps to improve energy production. It has a similar function to carnitine but is superior and more efficient. ALCAR is naturally occurring in plants and animals and is often used as a dietary supplement. As a dietary supplement, ALCAR can be used to improve memory and increase energy. Some studies have shown the nutrient have positive benefits in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease, hyperthyroidism, heart attacks, and many other medical problems.


Most diets contain positive amounts of ALCAR; therefore, there is no dietary dosage requirement for the nutrient. In some individuals, however, the body is unable to make L-Canitine and absorb the ALCAR in foods due to a genetic defect. Additionally, those who have liver, kidney, or brain diseases may not absorb proper amounts of ALCAR. The nutrient is found naturally in meats, specifically lamb and fish, diary products such as cheese and yogurt, asparagus, wheat, peanut butter, and avocados. Additionally, the body produces small levels of ALCAR that are found naturally in the heart and skeletal muscles.


Many people take supplements of ALCAR to obtain therapeutic benefits. Supplements are found in pill and capsule form and range in size from 100 to 500 mg. These supplements are not federally regulated like prescription drugs so be sure to choose a supplement sold by a reputable brand. You can always ask your local pharmacist for help in choosing the right brand. Nature’s Bounty brand ALCAR supplements, available at many retail stores including Walgreens, CVS, and Target makes a 250 mg 30 count bottle that sells for approximately $7 US. GNC sells a 500 60 count bottle of easy to swallow ALCAR capsules for $35.99 US. Online retailers such as sell a 250 mg 120 count bottle of ALCAR supplements for $14.37 US.

People take ALCAR supplements for a variety of reasons. Many notice a slight increase in physical energy and a large increase in mental energy and comprehension. The effects of ALCAR supplements are noticed within a few hours and make people feel mentally sharper, more alert, and find it easier to focus and concentrate.
Alcar Benefits


The typical dosage of ALCAR is 100 to 500 mg once a day, typically in the morning with food. Those taking ALCAR supplements to help treat a medical condition should always talk to a doctor to discuss the proper amounts of the nutrient to take. ALCAR can interact with certain medications, so be sure to discuss this with your doctor as well. The nutrient should only be given to children who have a diagnosed deficiency of ALCAR. A physician who has diagnosed the cause of ALCAR deficiency should prescribe the amount given to children.

Health Claims

There have been many scientific studies on the effects of ALCAR on the body. Such studies have show positive results in stimulating brain function, energy levels, and the treatment of some diseases. ALCAR has the ability to reach the brain and act as a powerful antioxidant that helps prevent deterioration of brain cells. It has been proven to increase sperm count and the ability for sperm to move more vigorously. Many studies have shown ALCAR to have a positive effect on the treatment of many heart conditions, Peyronie’s disease, Alzheimer’ disease, and hyperthyroidism.

Many companies manufacture and market ALCAR as a performance enhancer to be used in athletics. No scientific studies have shown any connection between taking ALCAR supplements and improved athletic abilities. ALCAR is also sold as a weight loss supplement. Some companies boast about the nutrient’s ability to suppress appetite and reduce fat within the body. Though it has been proven to reduce fatigue, no study has shown a direct correlation between ALCAR levels and weight loss.

Hardening of the Arteries

Individuals who suffer from advanced hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, often experience pain and difficulty walking due to lack of blood flow to the legs. Scientific studies have shown that taking 500 mg ALCAR once a day in combination with their prescription medications improved the muscle’s ability to function. No improvement was found for those who only had a mild case of hardening of the arteries.

Congestive Heart Failure

There have been may small studies have found that ALCAR, can improve symptoms of congestive heart failure. These studies showed that after taking ALCAR supplements for 60 days, the benefits lasted even after the individuals stopped taking the supplement. Typically, studies have prescribed 600 to 1,200 mg of ALCAR to be taken three times a day.

ALCAR After a Heart Attack

In a recent study, ALCAR was found to have positive effects in reducing death rate after a heart attack. ALCAR usage indicated improvements in heart rate, blood lipids, chest paints, and blood pressure in patients undergoing treatment for the study. The research showed that taking 4 g of ALCAR a day in addition to other any other medications greatly improved the chances of survival after a heart attack.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Some researchers speculate that CFS may be caused a lack of a certain nutrients within the body, which include ALCAR. In several studies, ALCAR has has been compared to some prescription medications for fatigue; individuals who took ALCAR showed more improvement after 4 to 8 weeks than those who took these prescription medications. An increase in the nutrient enhances mitochondrial production and protects against the negative effects of low blood flows. Both of these conditions may be present in CFS. The dosage used to treat CFS is 500 mg to 2 grams a day taken with food. It is recommended to break up the dosage, taking half in the morning and half in the evening.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Evidence from three controlled scientific studies showed that those taking ALCAR displayed improvement in exercise tolerance. ALCAR works with the muscles in the heart and those in those who suffer from COPD, improving the ability to exercise.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Numerous studies have evaluated the potential benefits of ALCAR in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of memory loss associated with dementia. Early research of ALCAR found that taking ALCAR could slow the progression of Alzheimer’s and some forms of memory loss due to dementia. As larger tests were conduction, no benefits have been found that find a connection between the nutrient and an ability to slow Alzheimer’s. New studies have indicated, however, that ALCAR can help ease symptoms of depression associated with senility.


A 6 month study concluded that the use of 2 to 4 g of ALCAR daily in combination with normal prescription medication for hyperthyroidism was effective in protecting bones. The nutrient helps to treat hyperthyroidism by blocking the action in cells of the thyroid hormone. This study also showed ALCAR’s ability to reduce bothersome symptoms of an overactive thyroid which include anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, tremors, and an elevated heart rate.

Peyronie’s Disease

Peyronie’s disease is an inflammatory condition of the penis that causes the penis to become curved and the individual to experience painful erections due to blocked blood flow. A 3 month study showed that ALCAR significantly reduced pain during intercourse and helped to reduce the curve of the penis, helping it to have a more normal appearance. The dosage given, 1 gram twice daily, showed no real side effects in any of the participants in the study.

Side Effects

Before taking ALCAR, always read the dosage instructions on the supplement bottle or those given to you by your physician. Side effects of taking ALCAR supplements are generally mild. The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased appetite. Less common side effects include confusion, depression, mania, aggressive behavior, and unpleasant body odor. The majority of side effects occur when taking a high dosage of 5 or more g per day.

Signs of an allergic reaction to ALCAR are skin rash, itching or hives, trouble breathing, swelling of the face or hands, tingling or swelling of the mouth or throat, and chest tightness. Those with epilepsy or who have ever had a seizure should not take ALCAR supplements. The nutrient has been shown to increase the number or severity of seizures in some individuals. There has not been enough research conducted on the effects of ALCAR and infants or fetuses so women who are pregnant or nursing should avoid taking ALCAR supplements.

Drug Interactions

ALCAR in supplement form appears to be quite safe. Individuals with low or borderline-low thyroid levels should avoid taking ALCAR. The supplement could impair the action of the thyroid hormone, causing an adverse reaction. Those who are taking drugs such as didanosine and stavudine used to treat HIV should not take ALCAR as some studies have shown that the nutrient can reduce the effects of the drug. Individuals taking cancer medications such as Cisplatin or Platinol or are undergoing treatments such as Paclitaxel or Taxol should also avoid taking ALCAR.



N-Acetylserotonin (NAS) is a precursor to melatonin which is hard to find over the counter. However melatonin is quite commonplace. It is used by many in tablet or capsule form as a sleeping aide and has been available as a dietary supplement in the United States since 1993. There is a lot more to this naturally occurring compound than its ability to bring on sleep. It is found in plants, microbes and animals. It circulates and regulates circadian rhythms of many biological functions in animals, and is activated by melatonin receptors.

Melatonin is  hormone synthesized and released from the pineal gland at night. It acts on specific high affinity G-protein coupled receptors to regulate a number of aspects of physiology and behavior, including circadian and seasonal responses, and some cardiovascular, retinal and immunological functions.
Melatonin Sleep Aid
As a hormone manufactured in the brain, melatonin plays a significant role in the natural sleep/wake cycle of the body. As night approaches, the concentrations of melatonin in the body increase up to 10 times more than during the day. This causes the feeling of sleepiness, which is why melatonin is often recommended as a sleep enhancer.

In plants, melatonin regulates the photo period in defense responses and works as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Many foods are known to contain trace amounts of melatonin, but not enough to elevate plasma melatonin levels. Those foods that contain traces of melatonin include ginger, tomatoes, oats, barley and bananas. Melatonin’s precursor is serotonin. Serotonin’s precursor is tryptophan, which is a chemical found in turkey, which is why after eating turkey many feel like napping.

There are two kinds of melatonin — natural and man-made or synthetic. The pineal gland of animals produces natural melatonin, which could be virus contaminated and not recommended. Synthetic melatonin is not likely to be contaminated, and is most often recommended.


Researchers have known about the pineal gland for literally thousands of years. Philosopher René Descartes referred to the pineal gland as the “seat of the soul,” believing that emotions originated from this interesting gland. Although the pineal gland has been studied for centuries, its function was not truly understood until the 20th century. During the 50s, Yale University researchers found that melatonin was connected to the pineal gland, and the link between hormonal influences and sleep, as well as a possible link to cancer became the focus of study.

During the 90s, melatonin was made available on the market as a dietary supplement. It is available without prescription in the United States, France and Canada. There are many countries that do not sell over the counter melatonin.

As stated, Melatonin is available without a prescription in the United States, but melatonin products are not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and purity, safety and effectiveness is generally not guaranteed. As of June 2010, there will be FDA rules to make sure that all dietary supplements will comply with “good manufacturing practice” and will be made with controls that produce consistent products that are contamination free with proper labeling. Any adverse effects or events will be required by law to be reported to the FDA, and the FDA will enforce requirements.

Melatonin Uses

People use melatonin for a variety of reasons including:

Jet lag – When taken orally on the day of flight and continued for several days before a trip, the number of days to maintain a relatively normal sleep pattern is reduced, thereby diminishing the the length of time that is required to fall asleep. Melatonin studies show that those who take it prior to travel are more alert and less tired during the daytime hours.

Melatonin has also been found to benefit those with delayed sleep phase syndrome, allowing for a more normal sleep pattern and duration. More studies are being done to support this claim.

Older people who suffer from insomnia seem to benefit from taking melatonin before bed, decreasing the time it takes to fall into a restful night’s sleep. There are reports that the elderly have an improved quality of sleep and are more alert when they rise.

The use of melatonin for sleep enhancement is quite popular and used by healthy people to reduce the time it takes them to fall asleep. There have been many studies done to support the fact that melatonin does decrease the amount of time it takes a healthy individual to fall and stay asleep.

Melatonin may also help to regulate changes related to age affecting the rhythm of body temperature, as well as its beneficial role in delaying macular degeneration of the eyes in older individuals. It is also being studied as an anti inflammatory treatment and as a treatment for anxiety prior to surgery.

As a treatment for cancer, human trial studies are ongoing in administering melatonin to patients with several types of malignancies including tumors of the liver, breast, lung, testicles, pancreas and brain. At this time, there is no clear evidence that melatonin decreases or increases the side effects of chemotherapy or the effectiveness of other cancer treatments combined with melatonin therapy.

Studies have also been done to see if melatonin can be used to treat migraine, cluster and tension headaches. There is some research that suggests melatonin may be beneficial, but more studies are needed to make a conclusive recommendation.

Melatonin Side Effects To Watch For

Some common side effects of melatonin include dizziness, irritability, fatigue, vivid dreams, nightmares, confusion and disorientation. These symptoms disappear when a person stops taking melatonin. There have also been some studies done that indicate melatonin might increase the risk of seizures, especially in children with neurological disorders. However, other studies have reported that melatonin actually reduces the likelihood of seizures when taken regularly. To this day, melatonin and seizures remains controversial, and anyone taking it for seizures should be closely monitored by a physician. Other reported side effects include dysphoria, paranoia, hallucinations and euphoria.

Patients who suffer from depression or other psychiatric disorders taking melatonin should be followed closely by a physician. If patients are taking blood pressure medication and melatonin, significant drops in blood pressure may occur, as well as increases in cholesterol levels. In rare cases, heart rhythm deviations have been related to melatonin intake. For those patients with type 1 diabetes, melatonin may reduce glucose tolerance and sensitivity to insulin. It is advised that these patients discuss melatonin usage with their physician.

In men taking melatonin, cases of gynecomastia have been reported and decreased sperm counts. Decreases and/or increases in luteinizing hormone levels, progesterone, thyroid hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, cortisol, growth hormones and vasopressin have also been noted.
Melatonin Supplement
Other side effect symptoms can include gastrointestinal problems like vomiting, cramping and nausea. High doses of melatonin have been linked to eye disturbances like glaucoma. There is conflicting reports that in some cases melatonin may, in fact, decrease intraocular eye pressure and is sometime used as a treatment for glaucoma.

Lactating and pregnant women should avoid melatonin because of the risk of developmental abnormalities in the fetus. Melatonin is detected in breast milk, so it should be avoided by women who are breasting feeding. Sperm counts have been notably lower in some men who regularly take melatonin, and women taking 50 mg or more have noted irregular menstrual cycles.

Because of the drowsiness side effects, people taking Melatonin should not operate machinery or drive when taking. Melatonin should not be taken with other drugs or alcohol or if a patient has kidney, liver or autoimmune disorders.

How Melatonin Is Sold

Melatonin is available over the counter as a tablet, capsule, transdermal patch, liquid, spray and is now available in some drinks like Dream Water. Melatonin drinks are marketed mainly to young adults, who have difficulty sleeping, but some researchers argue that melatonin should not be added to beverages, because people often drink to quench a thirst and may be ingesting too much of the hormone.

For those who have difficulty swallowing, melatonin spray is popular and available in different strengths.
Tablets and capsules come in different strengths as well and are also available as time released capsules or tablets. The dosage usually starts at 1 mg and goes up to as much as 5 mg. Obviously, if a physician has recommended melatonin for a child, smaller dosages should be given. As far as adult doses go, it usually depends on what works for you. Some people who use melatonin as a sleep aid start with a smaller dosage and increase it as necessary. It is recommended that melatonin be taken 30 to 90 minutes before going to bed.

Adult Dosage Recommendations

The Mayo Clinic has researched melatonin for several conditions. They have found that quick release is more effective for sleep conditions as well as intramuscular injections. Researchers at the Mayo Clinic have also studied melanoma patients who have been treated with melatonin applied directly to the skin. Intranasal solutions of melatonin in 2 milligram doses have also been studied as a treatment for high blood pressure. As with any medication, melatonin dosage should always be discussed with a physician to know how therapeutic melatonin might be on any given medical condition a patient may be suffering from.


Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland of the brain as a hormone. Its synthesis and release are stimulated by suppressed light and darkness, which strongly suggests that melatonin is involved in circadian rhythm and has a diverse affect on various body functions. The levels of melatonin are highest in the blood just before bedtime. Natural melatonin can contain a virus, and synthetic melatonin are used for several medical conditions, but is most proven and tested as a sleep aide. Because melatonin contains antioxide activities, most of its preventive and therapeutic uses are founded on its antioxide properties.

In conclusion, melatonin has been touted as a miracle drug, but more research is needed in many areas to support claims that it can cure everything from cancer to preventing aging. In America, over the counter sales of melatonin continues to thrive, but in in places the the UK, the Department of Health considers it an unlicensed medicine. The question remains, “Is melatonin one of the hottest ‘cure all’ supplements available , or is more detailed research needed to clear up some of the controversy surrounding this miracle drug?



Edaravone is an antioxidant, a type of molecule which has been proven to slow, reduce, or prevent the oxidation of surrounding molecules. As a free radical scavenger, edaravone is one of the newer types of antioxidants within the past ten years.

Edaravone is an antioxidant currently marketed by Mitsubishi Pharma in Japan, where it has been since 2001. Currently, it is not widely available and obtained only through Mitsubishi Pharma. A potent antioxidant, edaravone is a strong free radical scavenger. Free radical scavangers can protect against oxidative stress and neurological degeneration, leading edaravone to be the subject of many studies on neuroprotective benefits within the past decade.

Researchers have deemed edaravone to be a neuroprotective agent, and studies have shown it to assist in neurological recovery following cerebral infarction. Many central nervous system diseases such as schizophrenia, strokes, and Parkinson’s disease have acquired increased interest in recent years, and subsequently encouraging research on edaravone’s possibility for neuroprotection.

History of Edaravone

In February of 2000, it was announced that edaravone had been filed in Japan and was in the third phase of trials for subarachnoid hemorrhage; the filing also indicated edaravone could be used in developing a treatment for acute brain infarction. In November of 2000, Mitsubishi-Tokyo (now Mitsubishi Pharma) issued a press release stating it was developing edaravone as norphenazone, described as a free radical scavenger. Mitsubishi indicated the potential use for edaravone would be in research on its protective effects on cardiovascular disease, cerebral edema, and cerebrovascular ischemia.
Edvaradone Benefits
By February 2000, edaravone had been filed in Japan for the treatment of acute brain infarction, and was in phase III trials for subarachnoid hemorrhage [365460]. The compound blocks the action of the lipoperoxide, 15-HPETE, which normally increases with age and may be associated with neurodegeneration.

As an Antioxidant

Many modern diseases are widely believed to be caused by oxidative stress which occurs due to an imbalance or deficiency of antioxidants. Caused by free radicals, oxidative stress occurs when macromolecules (like DNA, lipids, and proteins) are damaged and lipid peroxidation occurs. By damaging the cells, oxidation is believed to contribute to atherosclerosis, inflammatory diseases, aging, cardiovascular problems, and cancer.

Oxidative stress has been found in clinical research to be present in cases of common diseases in humans, such as neurodegenerative problems and heart attacks. While many scientists believe oxidation can contribute, it is not known for a certainty whether or not oxidative stress causes the diseases or occurs as a byproduct. Initial studies done over broad spectrum antioxidant supplement have shown while small supplements of antioxidants can be beneficial, an excess supplementation of antioxidants can be harmful. Antioxidants are used in industrial manufacturing in larger quantities, supporting the theory that an overdose of supplements would be harmful to the body.

About Antioxidants

Antioxidants work to combat oxidation, a chemical reaction that produces free radicals. In turn, through oxidation the free radicals begin a “chain reaction” which damage surrounding healthy cells, contributing to disease, degeneration, and complicating illnesses. While oxidation is necessary to transfer oxygen to cells and is essential for life, the reactions can also be damaging.

Plants and animals tend to have complex biological systems which support multiple kinds of antioxidants. Common antioxidants found in plants and animals are vitamin C, catalase (an enzyme), vitamin E, gluthathione, and many kinds of peroxidases. By terminating the chain reactions through the removal of intermediate free radicals, antioxidants inhibit other oxidation via being oxidized. Higher instances of oxidative stressors and cell damage are found in living beings with low levels of antioxidants.


Enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, compounds like ascorbic acid, or tocopheral, are used by human cells to protect themselves against the damage caused by free radicals. All human cells use these enzymes, but disruptions can occur in the biological process. This has led many health experts and biologists to encourage the supplementation (within reason) to keep the balance of antioxidants at a healthy level in order to combat the damage oxidization might cause.

Possessing powerful free radical suppression and active antioxidant properties, edaravone has been used recently as an agent for commercial research in developing treatments for diseases which have strong ties to high levels of oxidization.
Research and Possible Uses

Radicut Bag

In February of 2010, an advisory and research firm on healthcare and pharmaceutical issues reported that Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma had gained approval for Radicut Bag, an intraveneous formulation of edaravone available only in Japan. The first instance of edaravone being widely manufactured and distributed, the approval of Radicut Bag as a treatment method has bolstered edaravone to become one of the top selling acute ischemic stroke therapies in the global pharmaceutical market. Radicut Bag is approved through 2018, and is expected to launch later in 2010 in Japan.

The convenient method of administering edaravone through an intravenous bag is a big plus in an emergency care setting, where most stroke sufferers seek treatment. The sales for edaravone marketed as Radicut Bag are estimated to be approximately $286 million dollars by 2018 in Japan.

Acute Ischemic Stroke

In Japan, the free radical scavenger has been used to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke, which results from decreased blood supply to the brain. Patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke were shown to have improved functional outcomes after being treated with edaravone in a random controlled trial. As the ischemic brain can produce free radicals when injured, it was theorized that edaravone could also help suppress neuronal death, prevent brain edema, and avert cell injury by aggressively acting as a free radical scavenger. Similar results were found in treating patients with acute cerebral infarction, where oxidative brain damage was repressed after treatment with edaravone.

The effect of edaravone’s therapeutic effects on patients severely suffering from carotid-territorial stroke was the subject of another study. The results showed that two of the patients to which edaravone was administered were able to be released to outpatient status within eight weeks after the initial onset of the stroke. These findings did not mimic the remarkable effect edaravone had on patients with an earlier onset of the disease, but did not prevent infarcts from spreading or subsequent edema, leading to the conclusion that edaravone was not beneficial in improving functional results among surviving patients.

Gastrointestinal Injury

After being tested as a protectant against ischemia, edaravone was evaluated as a recently developed agent for free radical scavenger against gastrointestinal injury. In the study, performed on rats, intraveneous administrations of edaravone were given at five minute intervals. Increases in oxidative activity were shown to be significantly inhibited by the rats receiving edaravone.

Intestinal bleeding was also observed macroscopically and microscopically to reduce following edaravone treatment. In the study, edaravone administrations were also shown to have an effect on reducing levels of mRNA and protein. By scavenging for free radicals caused by oxidization, the study’s results suggested that edaravone provided protection for the small intestine against injury.

Acute Lacunar Infarction

Known for its role in inhibiting neural damage caused by free radicals by repressing brain oedema after ischemia, delaying neuronal death, cell injury, and tissue injury, scientists theorized edaravone could be useful in treatment of lacunar infarcts. Lacunar infarction a type of stroke which affects the brain’s deep structures due to loss of blood flow from occlusion of penetrating arteries. Lunar infaction, and specifically acute lunar infaction, is often seen as a prelude to ischemic strokes.

In February of 2008, research findings were presented at the International Stroke Conference which indicated that edaravone, acting as a free radical scavenger, had proven effects on patients suffering from acute lacunar infarction by improving the clinical outcomes. The research was conducted in Fukuyama, Japan, from samples received from the Mitsubishi Pharma company.

Dr. Ohta and researchers evaluated 124 patients, consecutively, all admitted within 24 hours of the first onset of acute lacunar infarction. For all patients, it was the first incident of lunar infarction, and a retrospection evaluation was conducted. In terms of baseline characteristics, no significant differences were found, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was utilized to appraise clinical outcome. Sixty-five of the patients received conventional therapy for the disease, while fifty-nine patients received a combination of traditional therapy supplemented with edaravone.

Conclusion of Research

The research concluded that the patients treated with a combination of traditional therapy and edaravone had a significantly higher percentage (91.5%) of patients with a favorable outcome than those patients in the group which did not receive edaravone. The type of conventional therapy used in combination with edaravone had no effect on clinical outcomes. Subsequently, edaravone is now being seriously considered as a supplemental treatment for acute lacunar infarction irregardless of conventional therapy that is being used.

Acute Myocardial Infarction

In a randomized study of 80 patients in a clinical, open-label study, patients who suffered from acute myocardial infarction were selected to receive treatment of edaravone for research on improvement in clinical outcome. This study found that patients treated early onset (before myocardial reperfusion) by the free radical scavenger exhibited better clinical outcome with edaravone treatment due to smaller enzymatic infarcts.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Due to its wide use as treatment for cerebral ischemia in Japan, a study on Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the possible benefits of edaravone was conducted. A blind study in which mice afflicted with ALS evaluated various clinical indicators before, during, and after administering edaravone. The mice showed a slower pace of motor skill decline during and following edaravone treatment. The resulting data led researchers to conclude that edaravone was effective in slowing progression of symptoms, as well as the degeneration of neurons, in ALS mice subjects.



Hydroxytyrosol Sources

Hydroxytyrosol is currently believed to be one of the strongest free-radical scavenging polyphenols in use. Hydroxytyrosol is produced by olive, normally the olives used in the production of olive oil. The majority of extracted hydroxytyrosol can be found in the byproduct water produced during the pressing process. The most of the polyphenol can be recovered to process extracts for preventative and medicinal use. Hydroxytyrosol is the main polyphenol, along with other less potent polyphenols, found in olives.

History of Olive Oil

Olive oil, and the rest of the olive tree, has been used for centuries as a highly prized oil, peace offering, trophy and currency for trade. The olive tree itself is believed to date back to approximately twenty million years ago, based on fossilized evidence found in Italy. Commercial and personal cultivation probably began closer to 5000 B.C. in the Mediterranean valley known as the Fertile Crescent.
Olive Oil Benefits
Throughout the centuries, all the way to approximately 1500 B.C., Greece was the most abundant source of cultivated olive trees. In the region now known as Israel, ancient kings placed great worth on their olive orchards, guarding them fiercely and condemning anyone who harmed their harvest to death. In ancient Mediterranean society, great shipping vessels were built expressly for the trade of olive trees, olives and oil.

Known for its medicinal properties and easily grown in harsh climates, olive trees became one of the most prolific plants in the ancient Mediterranean. Not only were the olives pressed for their essential oil, the branches were used in trade or as rewards for winning competitions.

Olive Branches

Olive branches are most notably seen on images from ancient Greece, adorning the heads of rulers on statues and currency. “Extending the olive branch” became a common saying for promoting peace amongst feuding families. During the first Olympics in ancient Greece, participants competed with only a layer of olive oil adorning their entire body.

In ancient times, olive oil was an essential additional to medicines and cosmetics. Olive trees became so important in trade, commerce, medicine and cosmetics due, in part, to the tree’s almost invincible nature. Olive trees can withstand drought, harsh sun, wet cold and vigorous harvesting all while still growing and producing beneficial fruit.

Temperate growing seasons, entailing mildly warm, dry summers and rainy winters, offer the ideal growing and harvesting conditions for olive trees. The fruit the olive tree bears is pressed into oil, cooked into food, used as a bread dip in Mediterranean dishes and extracted into medicinal compounds and tinctures. Olive oil, and its polyphenol byproducts, is still highly prized as a virtual fountain of youth.

Uses of Hydroxytyrosol and Benefits

Hydroxytyrosol has been researched and studied in connection with the treatment and prevention of several degenerative illnesses. A number of researchers have discovered the hydroxytyrosol compound is best absorbed when taken orally. The nature of the antioxidant has been found to absorb very quickly through the lining of the stomach and into the bloodstream. Once transferred to the circulatory system, hydroxytyrosol collects in the cerebrospinal fluid and provides a number of protections to the cells of the nervous system.

The protected cells have been found to resist the attack of chemicals on brain cells, aiding in the reduction of serious Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. Hydroxytyrosol treatments have also been found to benefit other degenerative nervous disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease. In laboratory experiments conducted by researchers, brain cells exposed to oxidizing chemicals along with hydroxytyrosol. Researchers found the level of energy producing cells was protected by the cells with the hydroxytyrosol, while the control cells were seriously damaged by the oxidizing chemicals.

In addition to neurological protection, hydroxytyrosol has been found to lower the absorption rate of LDL, or bad cholesterol. There have also been studies that suggest hydroxytyrosol can be taken to reduce the risk of cancer and metastasis of existing cancer cells. Researchers introduced the polyphenol hydroxytyrosol to cancer cells found in leukemia and colon cancer. In the study published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention in 2002, researchers stated the cancer cells were visibly arrested and prevented from expanding into larger tumor areas.

Variations and Best Practices

Hydroxytyrosol is available in several different formats and range in price from under ten dollars to close to thirty, depending on the delivery method. There are online vendors who sell products including hydroxytyrosol, and made exclusively with hydroxytyrosol, which are available year round.

For a natural alternative to expensive facial creams, those looking for firmer younger skin can purchase Hidrox facial cream for around nine dollars. Hidrox includes an exclusively patented extract of hydroxytyrosol and is indicated for use as a night cream for smoother, firmer skin. Hidrox facial cream fights free radicals that can affect the skin and cause unwanted signs of aging on the face. Hidrox is a smooth cream that is quickly absorbed into the skin for protective defense against sun damage and aging.

Those looking to boost their body’s immune system and free radical fight ability can purchase Olivenol, which is a vegetarian tincture that can be taken internally. Tinctures are extracts made from the pulp of plants to refine the beneficial polyphenols and herbs. Tinctures are also easily digested and can be added to regular drinks for a palatable flavor. Olivenol supplement contains hydroxytyrosol extracted directly from the pulp of organic olives and is available online for approximately fifteen dollars. Hydroxytyrosol is easily absorbed through the stomach lining and into the bloodstream and promotes cardiovascular, immune system and cholesterol health.

Other Options

If a tincture is not preferred, there are vitamin type caplets and tablets containing dried extracts with hydroxytyrosol. VegCaps are a dietary supplement that is ingested in the same manner as regular vitamins. Hydroxytyrosol, sold as the brand name Olivenol, is available in 300 mg VegCaps at many online health stores. Pricing for a 60 cap bottle ranges, depending on the supplier, from eighteen to thirty dollars.
Olive Oil Uses
While most herbs are recommended in specific dosages for adults only, hydroxytyrosol has shown no adverse side effects when administered to any age group. CreAgri, the maker of Olivenol, conducted scientific studies on subjects who ingested a Mediterranean diet which heavily featured olive oil as its own food group. The manufacturer produces Olivenol by using all natural extraction process with no harmful chemical solvents.

They provide several different variation of Olivenol, depending on the consumer. One 300mg VegCap is equivalent to a recommended four to six ounces of olive oil per day. Olivenol is one of the only herbal supplements to feature hydroxytyrosol as its main compound.

Dosage Instructions

Hydroxytyrosol, ingested in any format, should be done according to the manufacturer’s instructions. No herbal or plant extract supplement should be added to a diet without first consulting a primary or dietary physician.

Although all previous research indicates hydroxytyrosol is completely beneficial to humans, some herbs and supplements can interact badly with prescription or over-the-counter medications. Consulting a physician who has prescribed medication for a specific illness is recommended to avoid any adverse reaction between the prescription and the natural treatment.

Legality and Availability

Hydroxytyrosol is a legally obtainable herbal supplement made from the extract of organically grown olives. There are no chemical additives included in the supplement that would make it illegal in the United States. Hydroxytyrosol can be added as a dietary supplement either through the use of extra virgin olive oil, instead of vegetable oil, while cooking or as a dietary supplement taken in the same manner as a regular vitamin.

Recommended dosages for olive oil, in order to receive the full benefits of the hydroxytyrosol, are four to six ounces per person per day. While this may seem like a small amount, olive oil is high in fat and may affect those who are on a low-fat or fat-free diet. As an alternative to using extra virgin olive oil, consumers can purchase hydroxytyrosol in tincture or capsule format. This method of ingestion may be much preferable to straight olive oil.

Hydroxytyrosol can be purchased at many health food and herbal supplement stores around the world. It can also be found on the internet, either directly from the manufacturer or through various herbal supplement websites. With an unusually long growing season, olives can be harvested in the mild Mediterranean climate almost year round.

Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

Hydroxytyrosol can provide many health benefits for consumers of all ages. There is no minimum age for good health and a healthy diet. As with any significant diet change or addition of a dietary supplement, one should always consult their primary physician. The makers of Olivenol are also available for consumers who may have questions on changing their diet or adding the healthy benefit of olive oil to their diet as a supplement.

Throughout history, olive trees and the oil their olives produce has proved to be beneficial, not only for the internal human body, but also for the external. Creams made primarily of the pressed extracts of olives have shown to significant increase the outward appearance of aging skin. As one of the strongest free radical fighters known to man, hydroxytyrosol is a natural supplement that should be seriously considered as a healthy addition to any lifestyle.



Selegiline is sold under the trade names Eldepryl and Zelapar for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and Emsam for the treatment of major depression.

Selegiline belongs to a group of chemicals that are called monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, or MAO-B inhibitors. These chemicals inhibit the activity of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. This enzyme breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Neurotransmitters are chemical signals that are used by the nervous system.

If the activity of monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down these neurotransmitters, is inhibited, then the levels of the neurotransmitters will rise. As more of the neurotransmitter becomes available, then their activity is changed.

At high concentrations, an MAO-B inhibitor can also inhibit monoamine oxidase type A, an alternative form of the enzyme that has similar functions.
Treating Parkinsons
Selegiline is an MAO-B inhibitor that prevents the breakdown of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in numerous types of brain function, including the control of voluntary movements, memory and mood control. By altering the processing of dopamine in the brain, a MAO-B inhibitor such as selegiline can have a significant impact upon the nervous system. These chemicals can therefore be used as medicinal treatments.

Selegiline has been used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and major depression, all conditions in which dopamine can play an important role.


Selegiline was discovered in the 1960s by Joseph Knoll, a scientist who was investigating the physiological differences between people who were high achievers and those who were not. In order to conduct his work, Knoll required a chemical with certain properties, and he asked a chemist, Ecsery to come up with some possible compounds. Of the thirty or so chemicals that Ecsery produced, Knoll chose a chemical he called deprenyl. This chemical in fact had two different forms or enantiomers, one of which was selegiline.

In 1971, Knoll demonstrated that selegiline was a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. By 1975, two other scientists, Walther Birkmeyer and Peter Riederer had proved that it could be used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The ability of the drug to treat depression was first recognized by Ervin Varga in 1967, but this research was forgotten until the beginning of the 21st century, when the selegiline transdermal patch was developed as a treatment for depression.


Selegiline has several medicinal uses. It is usually prescribed as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease, but it has also been used as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Selegiline is also used to treat major depression.

Selegiline is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. It is usually prescribed for patients who are also taking a combination of levodopa and carbidopa, which is sold under the trade name Sinemet.

Taking selegiline alongside these medications reduces the dosages of levodopa and carbidopa that are required to be effective. It also prevents the effects of the other drugs from wearing off in between doses, and increases the time period over which levodopa and carbidopa can be used effectively to control the symptoms of the disease.

Additional Usage Options

Selegiline can also be prescribed independently of levodopa and carbidopa treatment. In patients who are taking selegiline alone, the point at which they need to begin treatment with levodopa and carbidopa can be postponed from about a year after diagnosis to approximately 18 months. Selegiline may help to slow the progression of the condition when it is given to patients who have only recently been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and are therefore in the early stages.

Although there is as yet no scientific proof that selegiline can help to treat Alzheimer’s disease, it has been used on some patients. It is not an FDA approved treatment for this condition, however.

Selegiline can be used to treat major depressive disorder. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are usually prescribed to patients only after other attempted treatments have failed. This is because of the serious side effects that such treatments can inflict upon patients. Selegiline is not used as a front-line treatment for depression, but it is a better option than other MOA inhibitors, since it is substantially safer.

Selegiline has also been used in veterinary care as a treatment for cognitive dysfunction and Cushing’s disease in dogs.

Scientific Evidence

The earliest medicinal studies of selegiline focused on the possibility of using it to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease. This research and the consequent use of selegiline in this patient population have demonstrated that it is an effective treatment for this condition. It has also shown that patients who are taking selegiline alongside treatment with levodopa and carbidopa can be effectively treated with reduced doses of levodopa and carbidopa, and are therefore less likely to suffer from the adverse effects that these medications can cause.

Studies have been conducted into the efficacy of selegiline as a treatment for people with Alzheimer’s disease, but the results were inconclusive. A Cochrane review of the evidence determined that there was no evidence that selegiline was an effective treatment for this condition. In some of the studies, there did appear to be some improvement the performance of patients on memory tests when they were given selegiline, but any effect appeared to be very small.

Long Term Effects

The long term efficacy of selegiline in these patients is unknown. It is thought that selegiline could help patients with Alzheimer’s disease since this conditions leads to lower levels of dopamine in the brain, due to a rapid breakdown of dopamine. By inhibiting the enzyme that destroys dopamine, selegiline could help to treat this deficiency. It may then be possible for more dopamine to pass between nerve cells in the brain, which could allow the parts of the brain that control memory, mood and thought to work better.

Selegiline was approved by the FDA as a transdermal treatment for major depression in 2006, after clinical trials showed that it was an effective and safe treatment. The safety findings showed that it was in fact a better option than other monoamine oxidase inhibitors, since it produced fewer side effects and, when taken at a low dose, did not require the same dietary restrictions as other drugs of the same type.
Dosage Information
Studies have been conducted to investigate other possible uses for selegiline, as a treatment for ADHD and to help people to quit smoking tobacco and marijuana. There is not, as yet, any reliable scientific evidence of selegiline efficacy in these uses.


Selegiline is available in both oral and transdermal forms. The oral forms are used to treat Parkinson’s disease, while the transdermal one is used for treating depression.

Oral selegiline can be taken as either a capsule or a dissolving tablet. Capsules are usually taken twice daily, with both breakfast and lunch. The dissolving tablets are usually taken only once a day, before breakfast, and are not taken with any food or liquid. In fact, with this form, the patient should not drink anything for five minutes before and after taking their dose.

The oral disintegrating tablet is often begun at a lower dose, which the doctor will then increase after six weeks. The dosage of oral selegiline can vary. Tablets are available in a selection of doses. The usual prescription for Parkinson’s disease will begin with a dose of 1.25 milligrams per day, which may be increased after six weeks to a dose of 2.5 milligrams per day.

Patients who are being treated for Parkinson’s disease may have their levodopa and carbidopa dosage reduced when they begin to take selegiline.

Transdermal selegiline is delivered in the form of a patch, similar to those that are used by people who are trying to quit smoking. The patch is simply placed on the skin. It can be attached to the thigh, upper arm or the torso. A new patch is worn every day, and it will continuously release medication into the blood stream over the following 24 hours. The usual dose in this form is 6 milligrams a day, delivered over 24 hours, although the doctor may decide to increase this, if necessary.

Selegiline, like all antidepressants, may cause an increased risk of suicide when given to children or young adults under the age of 24 who are being treated for depression.

Side Effects

The side effects of selegiline can be very severe, as with other monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and for this reason, it is only prescribed as a last resort in cases of depression, when other treatment options have been tried and have not worked.

The mildest side effects that may occur are dizziness, nausea and sickness, indigestion and feeling of anxiousness or agitation. Dizziness and faintness are most likely to occur when rising quickly from a lying position, therefore patients taking this medication should take care to get up slowly. This is particularly likely to be a problem at the beginning of selegiline treatment.

Other side effects include depression, sleepiness, difficulty sleeping, muscle pain and rashes. The dissolving tablets can sometimes cause sores or irritation in the mouth.

The most serious potential side effects of selegiline, which require immediate medical attention, are a severe headache, sweating, nausea or vomiting that occurs suddenly and is very severe, a fast or irregular heart beat, pain in the cheat, difficulty breathing, a sore or stiff neck, uncontrollable shaking, difficulty controlling movements or unusual movements, and hallucinations.

Skin Cancer

There may also be an increased risk of developing skin cancer (melanoma) for people who have Parkinson’s disease and are being treated with selegiline.

Patients who are taking MOAIs usually have to restrict their diets in certain ways, since these drugs can interact with foods that contain high levels of tyramine. These interactions can cause high blood pressure. The sorts of foods that need to be avoided are chocolates, beer and wine (including alcohol free beer and wine), cheeses and pickled foods.

Dosage Considerations

Selegiline, when taken at a low dose of 6 milligrams per day, does not cause this problem, and can therefore be taken without having to restrict the diet. At higher doses, however, interactions can take place, and foods containing tyramine must be avoided.

Selegiline can also interact with some other medications, and it is therefore important that any patient who may be taking selegiline inform their doctor of all medications and other drugs or dietary supplements they may be taking, or which they consider beginning to take while they are using selegiline.

Legal Status

In the US, selegiline is only available with a prescription. It has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and major depressive disorder, but it may sometimes be prescribed off label for other conditions.

Selegiline is a controlled substance in Japan, and therefore requires a license or prescription for use. This regulation is stronger than that in the US, where selegiline is not a controlled substance, although a prescription is necessary in order to obtain it. The tougher control in Japan may be due to the similarity of the structure of selegiline to that of some illegal stimulants.


Selegiline is a relatively expensive drug. It can cost upwards of $200 a month, but the cost will depend on the exact brand of drug that is used, the way in which it is to be administered, and the dosage that has been prescribed. It is possible to find cheaper sources of selegiline.

A prescription is needed in order to buy selegiline in any form in the US. It is possible to visit a pharmacy to get the prescription filled, or to order it online for pick up at a local pharmacy. Selegiline is also available for order online, although it is important to choose a reputable source, rather than just buying from the cheapest source.



Glutathione, also referred to as L-Glutathione, L-gammaglutamyl, L-cysteinylglycine or GSH, is a tripeptide naturally occurring in the body. Existing in almost every cell of the body, Glutathione is a small molecule made up of three amino acids: cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutathione, however, must be generated within the cells before it can work effectively within the body.

Glutathione is important to intermediary metabolism, immune response, and overall health. Often referred to as the “mother of all antioxidants,” glutathione is vital in aiding the multiplication of lymphocytes, the cells that mediate specific immunity, that occur in the development of an effective immune response. Glutathione is also used in repairing cellular damage from harmful free radicals and reducing oxidative stress. Glutathione is essential in protecting organs such as the liver, the eyes, skin, kidneys, brain, and heart. glutathione usage

History of Glutathione

The discovery of glutathione first was in 1888 by De-Rey-Pailhade, but its role as an antioxidant and detoxifier was not discovered until 30 years later. Glutathione was first isolated by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins in 1926. Isolating glutathione lead to understanding of this powerful tripeptide and exploration of its many uses. Hopkins made is the discovery and characterization of glutathione that is described in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He recognized that glutathione was important as a hydrogen acceptor in a number of biochemical reactions. In addition, Hopkins observed the way the body utilized oxygen in relation to glutathione levels.

Glutathione in Foods

Foods that naturally boost glutathione levels are fruits, herbs, vegetables and meats. Vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, onions, Brussels sprouts and cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, and asparagus are good sources of glutathione. Watermelon, avocado, fruits rich in vitamin C like oranges, foods containing vitamin E like almonds all contain positive levels of glutathione. Glutathione is found in raw eggs, fresh, unprocessed meats, garlic, turmeric, and herbs such as cinnamon and cardamom. Brazil nuts are also an effective source of glutathione. Eating one Brazil nut a few times a week is an acceptable way to increase glutathione levels; however, Brazil nuts are high in calories.


Unfortunately, there is no evidence of the benefits of taking glutathione as a supplement. Research suggests that glutathione taken orally is not well absorbed within the gastrointestinal tract. Taking supplements such as acetylcysteine, which is an antioxidant that can regenerate glutathione within cells. Another antioxidant to consider is the mineral selenium, which helps to boost glutathione production within the body. Other methods of glutathione supplementation have been found to be somewhat effective. These methods are administering glutathione using nasal sprays, sublingual (under the tongue), patches, and through injections.

It is rumored that actress Suzanne Summers spends over nine hundred dollars a month on glutathione injections to keep her healthy and give her body a youthful appearance. Oral supplements of glutathione are easily available at many places on the Internet such as and and can also be found in retail stores such as GNC or walmart. The cost depends on the amount of capsules and milligrams of glutathione; at GNC a 50 mg bottle of 50 tablets is sold for $9.99. Mineral supplements such as selenium are available on the Internet at websites such as and herbal for approximately $10 for 100 tablets.

Selenium is also available for purchase at many retail stores including walmart, walgreens, and kmart. Undenatured, or non-heated, whey protein is also high in glutathione. There have been some studies that have shown that the glutathione found in whey protein can be absorbed by the body. Whey protein is a commonly found product that is sold at retail stores such as walmart or Target and online at websites like Whey protein varies in prices but one can expect to pay $15.00 for a two-pound container of whey protein powder. One typically consumes whey powder in shakes.

There are many different flavors of whey protein powder such as chocolate, vanilla, and cookies and cream and it is very soluble, mixing easily into a healthy shake. There are no documented side effects of taking whey protein supplements.


Oral glutathione is taken in ranges of 50 mg to 600 mg, when inhaled through nasal sprays the dosage of glutathione is 600 mg twice a day, when used as an injection a dosage of 600 mg once a day is recommended by most physicians. If taking an oral glutathione supplement, it is important to only take the dose recommended on the instructions and only take supplements from a very reputable manufacturer, as these supplements are not closely regulated.


There is debate about the actual benefits of glutathione supplements in any form: oral, inhaled, or injected. Many scientists discount any supplemental product of glutathione sold, saying that the antioxidant cannot be absorbed into the body from these supplements. They recommend increasing your diet in foods naturally rich in glutathione. Several doctors agree that it is simply impossible to increase circulating glutathione to a clinically beneficial extent by consuming glutathione supplements. Those who are attracted to a more holistic approach to healthcare tend to disagree with those physicians, citing personal anecdotes and experiences as proof of the abundant benefits of glutathione supplements. Vitamin companies also boast the benefits of glutathione supplements. Many companies claim that their products decrease signs of aging, help to clear skin of imperfections or to whiten the skin, improve the immune system, reverse damage from smoking, reverse damage due to aging, and increase energy.

Side Effects

Generally, glutathione is said to be free of side effects. Considered safe by the Food and Drug Administration, no reports of harmful side effects have been published in any medical journals. There is one reported side effect has been contributed to glutathione, which is skin whitening. Skin whitening occurs when glutathione is taken in increased doses by modifying conversion of eumelanin (dark/brown/yellow pigmentation) to phaeomelanin (reddish white pigmentation). Many dermatologists use glutathione as a skin whitener and it has been proven to be very safe and effective. glutathione usage

Levels of Glutathione in the Body

One of the main causes of law levels of glutathione are free radicals. An increased presence of free radicals in the body can cause oxidative stress. Low levels of glutathione deficiency contribute to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging.

Oxidative stress can also worsen many diseases which include Alzheimer’s disease, liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer sickle cell anemia, HIV and AIDS, diabetes, and heart attack. The aging process also causes lower levels of glutathione in the body. By age 20, the body begins to lose between 10-15% of glutathione per decade.

It is important to increase consumption of foods rich in glutathione after age 20. Other ways glutathione is decreased in the body can be from pollution, stress, exposure to poison such as pesticides, and birth control pills and hormone therapy. The higher glutathione levels are the healthier the individual is. High levels of glutathione help to rid the body of toxins and boost the immune system as well as the metabolism and energy levels.

Many dermatologists recommend eating foods high in glutathione to help reduce the signs of aging and improve skin clarity. Raising levels of glutathione in the body has an impact on almost every disease and sickness. An increased presence of glutathione can help to reduce symptoms of and prevent colds and the flu, can increase energy levels, and can slow memory loss.


People of any age and lifestyle can benefit from increased levels of glutathione in the body. Glutathione contains so many healthy effects and no known negative side effects; because of this, most doctors and nurses encourage people to increase foods rich in this powerful antioxidant in their diet. Scientists agree that consuming increased amounts of glutathione early in life promotes longevity and reduce the potential of contracting and severity of chronic diseases. By neutralizing and repairing the damage done by free radicals, glutathione is proven to help slow the aging process.

Many doctors are further researching the benefits of high levels of glutathione for several conditions including Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, heart disease, osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s disease, cornea disorders, kidney dysfunction, liver disorders, and immunodepression that occurs in diseases such as AIDS. There is increased evidence suggesting that cellular redox, or reduction-oxidation, status is key in regulating viral replication and infectivity; glutathione helps to maintain a healthy cellular redox status. Glutathione has been proved to reduce flu symptoms by one third and increased levels of glutathione have shown a reduced chance of contacting the flu.

Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s

In Parkinson’s disease, research has revealed that oxidative stress and free radicals add to the deterioration of brain tissue. Low levels of glutathione have been found in those suffering from severe damaged brain tissue due to Parkinson’s disease. High levels of glutathione can slow the progression of brain tissue damage. Memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease has been proven to slow with an elevated level of glutathione in the body. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by degeneration of brain nerve cells and shrinkage of brain tissue. While it is unclear whether oxidative damage is a cause or merely an effect of Alzheimer’s, glutathione has been proven to slow down the progression of the disease.